Increased violence and forced displacement continue to affect the humanitarian situation in northeastern Nigeria – the key hotspot of the armed conflict in the country – that has been further aggravated by trade disruptions and an economic decline linked to the effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The latest Cadre Harmonisé analysis (March 2021) indicates that 9.2 million people countrywide face crisis or worse levels of food insecurity (March–May 2021), of whom 3.2 million in Adamawa, Borno and Yobe states. This figure is expected to increase to over 12.8 million people, of whom 4.4 million in the three northeastern states, during June–August 2021, unless resilience-focused and humanitarian actions are taken.
Climate change and variability, limited access to agricultural land and high food prices are also adversely affecting the food security and nutrition in the northeastern states. With the deterioration of the food security situation and an increased risk of famine in areas of Borno state, providing agricultural inputs to the most vulnerable households in time for the planting season starting in June is crucial to quickly increase food availability and access. In addition, livestock rearing and aquaculture interventions mitigate the risk of seasonal crop failure and other climate-related shocks, underlining the importance of diversifying livelihoods production and income sources. Finally, providing fuel-efficient stove production support will mitigate risks linked to malnutrition, protection, deforestation, health and communal tensions over natural resources.