Nigeria Situation Report, 31 December 2021

Situation Report
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Situation Overview: Adamawa, Borno and Yobe States


130 new cholera cases and three fatalities recorded as total climbs to over 1,700 and 54 deaths across 12 LGAs At least 130 new cases of cholera and three associated fatalities were reported across six LGAs of Fufore, Girei, Mubi South, Numan, Yola South and Yola North. The latest spike takes the total number of confirmed cases to 1,710 and 54 fatalities (at a 3.1 case fatality rate). Girei, Numan and Yola, the state capital, are among the worst affected accounting for over 60 per cent of total cases. Shortages of funding and manpower, and a limited number of active partners (especially in Numan LGA) are among key challenges impacting the response. Partners led by WASH and health sectors continue to support the State Ministry of Health (SMoH) is ramping up response across pillars and coordinating efforts through the emergency operation centres. Water chlorination and disinfection are being intensified across affected and vulnerable locations where aqua tabs are also being delivered to households to mitigate spread. Health teams are providing vital care across cholera treatment units and also conducting surveillance across hotspot locations which is critical for prompt identification and isolation/treatment of suspected cases. This is the worst outbreak of cholera in Adamawa State in recent years. The most recent outbreak in 2019-2020 infected a total of 851 people with four fatalities. Armed fighters abduct teenage girl, loot food supplies during attack in Madagali LGA On the evening of 7 December, non-state armed group (NSAG) operatives invaded Bitiku community of Madagali LGA clashing with local hunters before breaking into civilian homes. A teenage girl was abducted and vital supplies including food items were looted by the NSAG operatives. Madagali LGA is the worst affected in Adamawa State by the ongoing conflict. The LGA borders the Sambisa Forest stronghold of NSAG operatives who constantly raid adjoining communities to loot food and other supplies. In neighbouring Michika LGA, letters reportedly authored by NSAG operatives and threatening attacks during the yuletide celebration have triggered widespread panic. Residents of the Bazza community reportedly woke up to several copies of the threat letter scattered across the neighbourhood. Security agencies are yet to confirm the authenticity of the threat letter, but some residents are reportedly leaving the community while others have expressed fear for their lives. Sporadic shooting was reported in Michika town on the evening of 19 December indicating potential risks in the general area. Rising cases of acute malnutrition in Michika LGA with over 1,700 children admitted at treatment facilities Partners in Michika LGA and Askira Uba (across the border in southern Borno) continue to raise concerns over the increasing cases of moderate acute and severe acute malnutrition (MAM and SAM) among children with a large number of admissions to outpatient therapeutic programmes (OTPs). Some 1,702 children are currently on admission at OTP sites across the two LGAs, more than double the number (897) less than a month ago. High prevalence of measles and diarrheal, poor feeding practices, WASH gaps and limited funding for remote nutrition programming are among major triggers for high SAM and MAM cases in recent months. OCHA and partners are following to ensure continuous scale-up of response to address the situation. Government and partners complete skill acquisition training for 500 youth to promote livelihoods and self-reliance Some 500 people, including youth and vulnerable women, in early December completed vocational training programmes covering different skills such as knitting and manufacturing soaps, bags, and shoes. The programme was facilitated by the Adamawa State Mass Education Board (ADSMEB) and UNICEF targeting beneficiaries from Mubi North and Mubi South LGAs. The intervention is part of the joint efforts to provide youth and women with vocational skills that can enable them to set up small businesses for livelihood activities/earnings and self-reliance. It also aims to mitigate the risks of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) especially for women and teenage girls who are particularly vulnerable due to limited or lack of livelihood opportunities.


Over 6,000 IDPs arrive Monguno camps, hundreds of families camp in Pulka market square following the closure of Bakassi camp in Maiduguri At least 6,656 new arrivals were recorded across four camps in Monguno LGA, including 5,262 that arrived between 6 and 10 December alone. The new arrivals are from Bakassi camp in Maiduguri, the state capital, which the Borno State Government (BSG) closed as of 30 November. Most of the IDPs are originally from communities around Monguno and some from Guzamala LGAs described as still unsafe for return. The influx has brought additional pressure on already stretched facilities and services across the camps, especially shelters. Hundreds of households, also among IDPs affected by the closure of the Bakassi camp, are camping in an open market space in Pulka town, Gwoza LGA, as partners continue to struggle with the lack of space for the construction of additional shelters. Food, shelter, and NFIs are urgent needs, and OCHA is following up with partners for a prompt response. An assessment is being rolled out this week to collate information about the impacts of the ongoing unilateral camp closures by the Government on the situation across some 11 LGAs that are receiving influxes of new arrivals. Government suspends distribution of food and NFIs across resettlement areas The BSG suspended the distribution of food and NFIs by humanitarian partners in newly resettled communities across the state. The BSG claims that this is part of efforts to enable resettled populations rebuild their lives and engage in livelihood activities for self-reliance. The directive does not affect ongoing/planned food and NFI assistance across existing IDP camps and host communities. It has the potential to worsen conditions experienced by IDPs. Several IDPs relocated to the resettlement areas in recent months have moved to already congested camps and host communities, citing limited support, lack of critical services and livelihood opportunities. Humanitarian partners are working with the Government to address concerns around the issues. Government to close two major camps hosting over 40,000 IDPs in Maiduguri amid unresolved safety and access concerns The Borno State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) has confirmed plans to close the Teachers’ Village and Stadium camps which host nearly 40,000 IDPs in Maiduguri, the capital, by end of December. Governor Babagana Zulum had in recent weeks visited both camps to supervise the distribution of tokens (used for identification and provision of return packages) to the IDPs. The IDPs in both camps are mostly from Kukawa and Guzamala LGAs on the shores of the Lake Chad, which are still inaccessible to international aid agencies due to ongoing insecurity. Sources in both camps reported in recent weeks that some IDPs have expressed concerns about safety and security in the LGAs and are making plans to settle in informal sites around the capital. On 16 December, the government provided support packages including food and cash to IDPs in the Teachers’ Village camp who have 10 days to vacate the facility. Humanitarian partners continue to engage with the BSG lead agencies on ensuring a principled and multi-stakeholder approach that guarantees safety, dignity, and continued access to critical services and assistance for civilians including IDPs being relocated. 56 new cases of cholera reported as total cases stand at 5,797 with 170 fatalities Some 56 new cases of cholera were reported across MMC, Jere, Konduga and Mafa LGAs during the reporting period bringing the total confirmed cases to 5,797 across 18 LGAs. No new fatalities were reported during the period as total deaths remain at 170 (at a 3.4 per cent case fatality rate). The number of new cases has continued to drop and some of the worst-affected and hard-to-reach locations such as Gwoza (where the index case was recorded) and Damboa both of which did not report new cases during the period. Maiduguri, the state capital, where WASH partners had reported widespread contamination of water sources, is the worst-affected accounting for over 25 per cent of total cases in the State. Partners led by health and WASH sectors continue to support the State Ministry of Health (SMoH) in sustaining and ramping up critical response including through the management of emergency operation centres (EOCs) and cholera treatment units (CTUs) across the state. Some 14 cases were treated and discharged during the period, as health partners continued to intensify active case search across affected and high-risk areas through the deployment of monitoring teams. Cholera risk awareness and sensitisation teams are also prioritising hotspots and affected locations with the delivery of vital kits including aqua tabs to ensure access to potable water. Chlorination and disinfection of contaminated water sources and desludging of latrines are also ongoing especially in Maiduguri which continues to report high cases. The last major cholera outbreak in Borno State was in 2018 – 2019 with a total of 6,367 cases with 73 fatalities. Access constraints (due to ongoing insecurity hard-to-reach areas), acute funding shortages (especially during the onset), and influxes of populations are among key challenges that contributed to the massive spread and higher fatalities this year. Armed attack in Askira Uba LGA results in at least 10 civilians killed At least 10 civilians were killed, and several others were wounded in Tuga village, Askira Uba LGA, during an attack by non-state armed group (NSAG) operatives on the evening of 19 December. Initial reports stated that the NSAG operatives rounded up almost the entire village and opened fire on the civilians after preaching their doctrines to them. The death toll may rise due to severe injuries from gunshots wounds. Unconfirmed local media reports put the fatalities at about 20. The armed operatives – who claimed avenging a previous clash with the military in the town – torched several homes and vehicles, and looted valuables before leaving the area. This is one of the deadliest and most brutal attacks directly targeting civilians in recent months. Askira Uba and the surrounding southern Borno LGAs such as Chibok and Biu, and Michika and Madagali (in neighbouring Adamawa State) have been repeatedly attacked in recent weeks since the onset of the dry season. Government and partners ramp up response to increasing COVID-19 cases amidst fourth wave Borno State has in recent weeks recorded a spike in the cases of COVID-19, including 22 positive cases reported in the week of 6 December alone (which is 13 per cent of 169 samples tested during the same period). The State currently has a total of 1,462 and 44 fatalities (3 per cent CFR) across 17 LGAs since the start of the pandemic. Following the increasing trends, partners led by WASH and health partners, and the Government are intensifying efforts across response pillars especially risk awareness during the holiday season when social gatherings are typically higher. Across IDP sites which are mostly congested and at higher risk of rapid spread, partners are ramping up screening activities ensuring that suspected cases are promptly isolated and treated. Nigeria has in recent weeks confirmed multiple cases of the Omicron variant, known for rapid spread. The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) on 20 December announced a fourth wave of the pandemic following the over 500 per cent jump in new infection rates in the country over the last two weeks. Armed fighters fire multiple projectiles into Maiduguri causing panic and destruction Tens of civilian homes and property were damaged or destroyed on the morning of 4 December when projectiles fired by non-state armed group (NSAG) operatives landed in civilian areas across Maiduguri, the state capital. At least five projectiles landed in civilian communities across Gomari, Shuwari 2, “1000 Housing Estate”, Dugumuri and Shuwari 1, which is adjacent the airport. Sounds of the explosions triggered widespread panic across the affected areas forcing residents to temporarily flee the locations. Although no civilian casualties were recorded, the attack is considered audacious and indicates the continued capacity of NSAGs to launch coordinated attacks on the capital which hosts the headquarters of the military counter-operations in the entire north-east region. Maiduguri is also the epicentre and hub of the ongoing humanitarian response across the region. Governor Babagana Zulum on a visit to the affected areas described the attack as “sad and unfortunate,” and tasked the military on ensuring surveillance in and around the capital.


Armed fighters fire projectiles into Buni Yadi town, wounding five civilians, including children At least five civilians, including two women and three children, were seriously wounded in Buni Yadi town, Gujba LGA, when non-state armed group (NSAG) operatives fired projectiles into the town on 2 December. The advancement of the NSAG fighters towards the town was reportedly blocked by security forces. It was the second incident of violence in Buni Yadi town within a two-week period, with direct impact on civilian locations. Aid assets and critical facilities, including a partner-supported nutrition facility and telecommunications infrastructure, were targeted during the previous attacks. Gujba LGA, about 30 kilometres south of Damaturu, the State capital, is one of the worst-affected regions in the State. In recent years, partners have scaled-up assistance to resettlement and restoration of livelihood activities for several thousands of returnees in the LGA. The recent spate of violence, however, poses potential threats to the ongoing humanitarian assistance and early recovery programming, including the cholera response. Eight new cholera cases recorded, as the total climbs to 4,011 with 91 fatalities Eight new cholera cases were recorded during the reporting period, bringing the total to 4,011 with 91 fatalities (at 2.3 per cent case fatality rate) across 15 of the 17 LGAs in the State. All new cases were reported in Nguru LGA. The number of new cases reflect a 20 per cent drop compared to previous weeks, which can be attributed to the ongoing scale-up of multi-sectoral response led by Health and Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) partners in collaboration with the State Ministry of Health (SMoH). Additional cholera response teams were deployed across nine LGAs, and partners conducted training for over 70 health workers on cholera case management and infection prevention and control (IPC). WASH partners are also ramping up the chlorination/disinfection of water points and the distribution of aqua tabs across affected and vulnerable areas to ensure access to potable water. Some 124 hygiene promoters were trained and deployed across locations to conduct awareness and sensitization activities to mitigate further spread. Yobe State is battling the worst cholera outbreak in more than three years as the current fatalities (91) have exceeded the total 61 deaths recorded throughout a similar outbreak in 2018, and the reported cases (4,011) have more than doubled compared to the 1,800 cases recorded in 2018. Acute funding shortages, access constraints and weak health and WASH systems are some of the major challenges impacting the ongoing response. Farmers in the northern LGAs report harvest loss due to late and insufficient rainfalls The State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) and the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs and Disaster Management and Social Development (MHADMSD) are following up on reports of poor harvest and its potential impacts on food security in northern Yobe State. According to initial reports, the 2021 rainy season started late and witnessed very limited rainfalls leading to loss of cultivated crops and poor harvest for numerous farmers. The worst affected LGAs include Bade, Nguru, Machina, Jakusko, Karasuwa, Yususari, Yunusari and Geidam. The harvest loss raises concerns of potential shortages and, as a result, a hike in the prices of food commodities in the coming months. Partners will update on the post-harvest assessment outcome to provide more reliable data on the situation, while Government agencies lead the preparedness in the event of major deterioration of the food security situation over the coming months. FSL partners host livelihood exhibition after reaching over 5,500 households reached with vital support On 8 December, FSL partners facilitated a one-day livelihoods products and activities exhibition in Damaturu that was attended by the Government lead agencies and partners from humanitarian and Early Recovery sectors. Beneficiaries of different livelihood programmes showcased the progress and impact of the assistance received in Geidam, Bade and Damaturu LGAs that have received large number of returnees trying to resettle and restart their lives. In the three LGAs, some 5,657 households, consisting of25,796 individuals were reached with different livelihood programmes this year. Across the State, vulnerable households were provided with over 150,000 drought resistant and high-yield seedlings, crop varieties, livestock, feeds and technical support to improve crop production and harvest. Vulnerable populations, including youth and women, were also reached with skill acquisition programmes to promote livelihood earnings and self-reliance.

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