Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:
This Operation Update is published to inform donors and other stakeholders on the progress since the launch of this Emergency Appeal in June 2021. Within the first 12 months of implementation, no major revisions were made to the Plan of Action except a realignment of figures to be reached against the Appeal Budget.
Given the drastic rise in numbers of affected people from 2.5 million at the start of the Appeal in June 2021 to 19.5 million people in 21 states by June 2022, and with the continuous negative impact of the hunger crisis in several parts of Nigeria, this Operation plans to scale up the response as summarized below:
Scale-up the Appeal funding ask from CHF 4.1 million to CHF 27 million
Expand the Hunger Crisis Appeal geographical target to 11 states (from the current 7) which are in IPC Phase 3+ in Northwest and North Central namely: Nasarawa, Niger, Benue, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), in North Central and Jigawa, Kaduna, Katsina, Kano, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara in the Northwest
Increase number of people targeted from 200,000 (33,000 HHs) to 1,092,300 (182,050 HHs) with a focus on Cash Plus (Emergency CVA for Basic Food Security and Livelihoods), Health and Nutrition and WASH as main areas of intervention
Update the detailed needs assessment conducted in September 2021, through a field mission to be conducted for the scale up process targeting additional four states
Revamp communication around the crisis through production of audio-visual materials in line with IFRC Africa Region Zero Hunger Initiative
Improve communications by engaging a consultant to carry out an audio-visual content of the issues in line with the scale up agenda.
To date, this Emergency Appeal, which seeks CHF 4,130,000 is 28% funded, up from the 18% reported in the 6 months update by end of December 2021. Further funding contributions remain very urgent to enable NRCS, with the support of the IFRC, to implement the planned activities and provide humanitarian assistance to those affected by the hunger crisis as quickly as possible, especially considering the increase in the number of persons projected to be facing hunger between June and August 2022 (19.5million). The American Red Cross has contributed a further USD 220,000 during the reporting period to take their total contribution to the appeal to USD 420,000, with British Red Cross further pledging GBP 300,000 which will be reflected in the next report. This has helped further the implementation of the appeal.
A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
The hunger crisis in Nigeria has gotten to a worrisome point with the country having the highest number of persons in West Africa (19.5 million) projected to be in crisis or worse (IPC Phase 3-5) including 1.2 million people in emergency phase (IPC phase 4). The Northern Region of the country has a high level of food insecurity compounded by long-running armed conflict and violence. Nigeria’s North Central and Northwest region has in recent years seen a deterioration in the security situation marked by an increase in banditry, armed conflict, farmers and herders’ conflict, climate change and nation-wide deteriorating economic situation. The crisis has accelerated during the past years because of the intensification of attacks and has resulted in widespread displacement across the region. In the region, bandit groups continue to raid villages, commit sexual violence, kidnap for ransom, and rustle cattle on large-scale. The bandit groups have jeopardized the livelihoods of about 21 million people living in Kaduna, Katsina, Kebbi, Niger, Sokoto and Zamfara states. Over 453,000 people are displaced in Zamfara, Katsina, Sokoto, Kano and Kaduna states as of January 2022. Conflict and banditry have disrupted livelihoods, led to forced displacement, human rights violation and obstruction of movement which has in turn reduced availability of foods, market access where food is available and lessened households’ capacity to meet their essential needs. Women and children have been affected more by this displacement with access to education and proper nutrition for children being severely affected.
In Northwest and North Central (Benue, Niger, Plateau and FCT) Nigeria, 7.4 million people including IDP population in Zamfara and Sokoto States and 2.7 million people including IDP population in Benue state are projected to face acute food insecurity (Phase 3 – 5 above) in June to August 2022. These figures are increase over the June-August 2021 projections which projected 5.7 million people in Northwest and 2 million people in North Central (Benue, Niger, Plateau and FCT). An estimated five percent of the total food insecure population (138,476 individuals) are internally displaced persons (IDPs), of which 26,000 are in the emergency acute food insecurity phase (CH phase 4). Zamfara North, Katsina Central and Katsina South are projected to be in crisis phase between June and August 2021. In the North Central, Benue State has the highest number of persons (321,726) in IDP camps currently in acute hunger crisis. The 2022 projections have seen more states in the Northwest and North Central moving into the IPC 3-5 phase. The higher prevalence of hunger crisis reflects the adverse effects of measures to contain the COVID‑19 pandemic on the supply chain, climate change, the escalation of conflict around the world and within the country, some localized cereal production shortfalls, the unfavorable macro‑economic conditions, which has had a major impact on the purchasing power of the poorest households, many of which were still experiencing job and income losses due to COVID-19 pandemic related restrictions.
Income-earning opportunities and wages are below average for most poor households across the country and even more restricted in conflict-prone areas. This is due to the poor macroeconomic conditions and the high levels of conflict across the country, resulting in stiff competition for labour in most areas. The high competition for labour income has also resulted in lower than typical wage rates due to the high labour supply in many areas. Furthermore, income from agricultural labour is lower than usual, with most poor households engaged in labour work to earn some income. Income from agricultural labour in conflict affected areas, notably the Northeast, is minimal. Households also engage in other unskilled labour such as petty trading, water vending and firewood sales to earn some income.
The impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict on local economies of African countries has been felt in Nigeria. Owing to high dependence of Nigeria on importation of wheat and staple foods, there has been a steady rise in the price of staples and agricultural inputs like fertilizer, which Nigeria imports from the warring countries. The conflict has affected local markets in Nigeria as well and even worsened the economic situation in a country that was already challenged by inflationary pressures and food supply chain disruptions due to insecurity and climate change.
This Emergency Appeal was approved on the 28th of June 2021 and targeted interventions in seven states of Northwest (Zamfara, Sokoto, Katsina, and Kebbi) and North Central (Benue, Nasarawa, and Niger) Nigeria with a plan to scale up to four additional states (Jigawa, Kaduna and Kano in the Northwest and FCT in the North Central.