In close collaboration with the Government of Nigeria and partners, IOM seeks to respond to humanitarian protection and assistance needs of those impacted by crisis and support progress towards the achievement of durable solutions.
The crisis in conflict-affected north-east Nigeria remains one of the most severe in the world today, characterized by armed conflict, forced displacement and grave violations of civilians’ human rights and dignity. Displacement will continue to be a significant factor in 2020, with the highest number of displaced populations located in the three north-eastern states of Borno,
Adamawa and Yobe.
A substantial number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) have returned to their communities of origin, as of November 2019, IOM recorded over 1.6 million returnees across the three worstaffected states. However, scarce resources in communities of origin are often insufficient to meet the basic needs of returnees in addition to those of home communities. Severe damage to, or destruction of, community infrastructure, as well as the lack of access to adequate basic services, property loss, local community tensions and lack of employment opportunities undermine the sustainability of return and reintegration, as demonstrated by past and current waves of secondary displacement.
For those in displacement, the situation on the ground remains dire and most have yet to receive humanitarian assistance. The security situation remains volatile and unpredictable, limiting humanitarian access across north-east Nigeria. Some 40 per cent of IDPs reside in the nearly 300 displacement sites (IOM DTM Round 29, IOM CCCM database), only some of which benefit from a formalized camp governance structure. Shelter, access to basic services, including water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), health and education, are particular areas of concern. The spontaneous nature of sites coupled with existing gaps in humanitarian assistance result in vulnerability to a multitude of risks including, but not limited to, flooding, wind and disease outbreak.
Displaced populations face grave protection risks, abuse and stresses including extreme violence, gender-based violence (GBV), exploitation, family separation and loss, restrictions on freedom of movement, and loss of social connections and traditional coping mechanisms, often compounding pre-existing protection challenges. Those most at risk include the elderly and chronically ill, persons with disabilities, female and child-headed households, unaccompanied and/or separated children, adolescent boys and girls, pregnant and/or lactating women and people returning from captivity.
For all regional transhumance-related activities, please see IOM's Sahel Transhumance Crisis Response Plan 2020.