NCDC Weekly Epidemiological Report: Volume 7, No. 5 - 10 February 2017


The emergence of Lassa fever prompts fresh prevention action.

The Lassa fever outbreak is currently active in 9 States across Nigeria; Ogun, Bauchi, Plateau, Ebonyi, Ondo, Edo, Taraba, Nasarawa and Rivers. In reporting week 5, 13 new suspected cases were reported from 7 LGAs in 7 States. Laboratory investigations carried out for Lassa Fever and other VHFs confirmed 4 Lassa Fever positive cases. One death was recorded (Case Fatality Rate for the week among suspect cases: 7.69%). The onset of this outbreak in Nigeria dates back to December 2016 (week 49). Cumulatively, a total of 196 suspected cases have been reported. So far, 53 cases have been laboratory confirmed and 5 cases classified as probable. Of these, 31 deaths have been recorded, 26 of them occurring in confirmed cases and 5 in probable cases. The Case fatality rate for all cases is 20.4% and for all confirmed/probable cases is 53.4%.

Nigeria records an annual increase in Lassa fever cases in the in the dry season. The Nigeria Centre for Disease control (NCDC) has the responsibility of coordinating the response to the c outbreaks in Nigeria and has increased its efforts to respond to the current outbreak. In 2016, NCDC pre-positioned of commodities for case management of Lassa fever across the 36 states of the federation including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). New VHF interim guidelines were developed and circulated and also put on the NCDC website. This year, we are collecting detailed epidemiological information on all probable or confirmed cases.

Furthermore, the NCDC has provided on-site support to Ogun, Taraba, Nasarawa and Ondo States in outbreak management and response.
The NCDC is working in collaboration with media to share key prevention messages with members of the public. For the first time ever, we are providing weekly updates on the Lassa Fever on the NCDC website. A social media campaign is ongoing via dedicated NCDC Facebook and twitter channels. Jingles are also being aired on identification of Lassa fever in selected radio and TV stations.

In the reporting week, ending 10th February 2017:

  • There were 329 new cases of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) reported. None was confirmed as Polio. The last reported case of Polio in Nigeria was in August 2016. Active case search for AFP is being intensified as Nigeria has assiduously reinvigorated its efforts to eradicate Polio.

  • There were 5 new suspected cases of Cholera reported. No deaths were reported. There has been a gradual decline in reported cases of Cholera as the dry season sets in..

  • There were 51 suspected cases of Cerebrospinal Meningitis (CSM) reported from 13 LGAs in 9 States. Of this, 1 was lab confirmed and 2 deaths were recorded (CFR 3.92%). Surveillance for CSM is ongoing and intensified in the States, particularly as the dry season has set in. o There were 404 suspected cases of measles reported from 29 States including the FCT. 17 were laboratory confirmed and 4 deaths were recorded, giving a case fatality rate of 0.99%.

In the reporting week, five states (Cross River, Delta, Imo, Kaduna and Abia) failed to report and five states reported late. Timeliness of reporting increased from 70.3% in the previous week to 73.0 % in the current week while completeness decreased from 91.9% in the previous week to 86.5%.