1.1 BACKGROUND OF CORONAVIRUS DISEASE (COVID-19)
Coronaviruses are a large family of RNA viruses that infect birds and many mammals including humans. These viruses cause illnesses that range from common cold to more severe respiratory diseases and rarely gastroenteritis. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by an emerging strain of coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) that has not been previously identified in humans, belonging to the same family of viruses responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), for which zoonotic and person- to-person transmission have been confirmed.
Person-to-person transmission has been established between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 2 metres/6 feet), primarily via respiratory droplets. Droplet transmission occurs when respiratory droplets generated via coughing, sneezing or talking contact susceptible mucosal surfaces, such as the eyes, nose or mouth. Transmission may also occur indirectly via contact with contaminated fomites with hands and then mucosal surfaces. Respiratory droplets are large and are not able to remain suspended in the air thus they are usually dispersed over short distances.
Since the declaration of COVID-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020, the Nigerian Government has closely monitored the ongoing outbreak which originated in Wuhan, China.
This document has been developed as a guide for the management of COVID-19 cases in Nigeria.
EVERY HEALTHCARE WORKER SHOULD TAKE THIS AS A SERIOUS DISEASE AND TREAT PATIENTS WITH RESPECT AND UTMOST CARE.