The continuation of conflict in Northeast Nigeria has created a complex humanitarian crisis, rendering sections of Borno, Adamawa, and Yobe states as hard-to-reach (H2R) for humanitarian actors, limiting affected people’s access to basic infrastructure and services. To support the humanitarian response to affected populations, REACH has been conducting data collection in Northeast Nigeria to collect, analyse, and share up-to-date information regarding multi-sectoral humanitarian needs in the area since November 2018. These H2R assessments aim to provide information on the situation of the estimated one million persons living in H2R areas to humanitarian service providers, including demographics, (inter)sectoral needs, access to services, displacement trends, and movement intentions This brief contains findings from settlements that were assessed in four local government areas (LGAs) in Adamawa State (Madagali, Mubi North, Mubi South and Michika ) and three LGAs in Yobe state (Geidam, Gujba and Tarmua) and covers a recall period of three months.
Findings suggest that access to food, water, and basic services was significantly limited for people residing in the assessed settlements, mostly due to the ongoing conflict and pre-existing infrastructure deficits. In addition, recent surges in the price of staple food items and farming inputs, adverse weather conditions, poor harvests, and longer term loss of arable farmland appear to have contributed to declining food production capacity and food insecurity in the hard-to-reach settlements.
In almost all assessed settlements, people were reportedly relying on unimproved drinking water sources and engaging in open defecation. While this indicates a risk of disease outbreaks, access to functional healthcare facilities appeared limited as well, due to either a lack of functional healthcare centers, damaged facilities, or staff shortages.
Makeshift shelters were the most commonly reported main shelter type for both host communities and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in all assessed settlements. In-depth interview (IDI) respondents commonly reported that residents had transitioned from permanent to makeshift structures due to conflict-related damages to shelters. Findings suggest that IDPs and orphans were sleeping outside without shelters in some settlements, leaving them more at risk of protection incidents and climatic shocks.
Conflict and limited access to basic needs and services appear to have continued to drive displacement. Findings indicate declines in host population figures in H2R areas, while those remaining are mostly some vulnerable people, including women, children, and older persons, some of whom might have become isolated from critical services and humanitarian aid.