Housing Typology & Damage Pattern Survey - Shelter & Wash Rapid Need Analyses of Rann, Kala Balge Lga, Borno State - 19 April 2019
Kala Balge is a Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria. It is the easternmost LGA of Nigeria. Its headquarters are in town of Rann. It has an area of 1,896 Km2 and a population of 60, 797 according to the 2006 census. The postal code of the area is 611. It is one of the sixteen LGAs that constitute the Dikwa Emirate, a traditional state located in Borno State, Nigeria.
The attack on Rann, headquarters of Kala Balge Local Government Area, forced some of the IDPs living there to flee Rann into border communities of Cameroon, a Central African country on the north-east of Nigeria, while most of them, fled to Ngala, a neighboring border town of Borno.
Prior to recent attack, Rann IDPs have received some assistance in the form of food, WASH, shelter, medical and non-food item assistance. But the situation in Rann now is so worrisome; thousands of people are really going through difficult times, in dire need of urgent humanitarian assistance. Currently, no INGO is giving any humanitarian assistance at the moment except Terre des hommes (TDH) distributing soaps and providing Aqua tabs. The total number of the individual presently in Rann, given by the overall camp chairman is 62,000 individuals.
Local infrastructure (Houses, Shops and Public buildings, Latrines, Emergency and Bama type Shelters), which existed prior to the recent attack by AOGs, were largely damaged or destroyed, with no capacity of residents to rebuild them. However, some individuals have rebuilt their houses using Mud blocks, but do not have the capacity to buy roofing materials. The level of destruction is enormous with various level of damages and disrepair in different communities. The occupants whose houses had been completely destroyed and have no resources to rebuild are occupying a building in better condition belonging to relatives and displaced neighbors; same applies to IDPs from nearby villages and town. Some community members use public buildings makeshifts shelters. Shelter interventions for IDPs and host unable to make emergency repairs of their houses are needed as priority.
Rann has 43 water points located across the town, some are hand pump while other are solar powered borehole. 35 out of the 43 are in good condition and working at the moment as reported by the participants of the FGD. One free flow borehole was also seen at the time of this assessment. The quality of the water, for all the boreholes visited is quite good, because no red residue is showing to indicate presence of iron in the water. The water is regarded as tasty by the community members. Quantity of water is considered mostly enough, in all the communities as reported by the participants of the FGDs.
However, many participants reported not having sufficient domestic water storage (jerry cans).
Sanitation situation is quite good in the town, because Terre des hommes (TDH) has engaged 150 hygiene promoters and Kanem Borno Human Development Association (KABHUDA), a local NGO collaborating with UNICEF has also employed 34 community volunteers. All the volunteers of the both NGOs are responsible for promoting hygiene and chlorinating of water within the town of Rann. Despite some latrines available in the town, some open defecation is also practiced. Sanitation infrastructure is still mentioned as priority through FGDs. Even though KABHUDA has constructed 40 unit of latrines.
Some HHs have dug pits but have no capacity to buy materials for lining and superstructure for privacy as reported during the FGDs.
According to the FGD participants, local market is poorly functioning, because both the residents and IDPs have almost no capacity (money) to restart business. Issues of bringing in supplies to Rann is not a major concern during dry season, because there is military escort from the town to the main supply chain (Gamboru) at least 2 to 3 times a week. During rainy season, vehicular movements to Rann is very minimal (almost none) due to blockage of the access roads by flood. Personal hygiene materials are very limited and considered to be high priority. Soap is hardly available, except the one distributed by TDH. No solid waste management and hand washing stations were seen at the time of this assessment.