Nigeria

Emergency Food Security Assessment in Three North East States (Adamawa, Borno & Yobe) of Nigeria, April, 2017 Data Collected in February, 2017

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Key messages

  • Overall, 44.6 percent of households are food insecure in the three north eastern states (Adamawa, Borno and Yobe) of Nigeria. Of these, 36.8 percent are moderately food insecure while 7.9 percent are severely food insecure.

  • The proportion of food insecure households is highest in Borno State (64.2 percent) and lowest in Yobe (34 percent). The three senatorial zones in Borno State have higher incidence of food insecurity compared to similar zones in Yobe and Adamawa;

  • Female-headed households (55 percent) and IDPs, particularly those in camps face greater food security challenges than other population groups;

  • Severely food insecure households consume inadequate diet consisting mostly of cereals or starch-based foods for less than 4 days, vegetables for less than 4 days and sugar for less than 2 days in a week;

  • In Borno (84.5 percent), Yobe (82.3 percent) and Adamawa (79.2 percent) states, a high proportion of households are relying on purchased food items. The second most prominent source of food for households is own-produced grain in Borno (8.3 percent), Yobe (13.7 percent) and Adamawa (15 percent);

  • 20 percent of households across Adamawa (22.1 percent), Borno (21.2 percent) and Yobe (17.9 percent) spend more than 75 percent of their total monthly expenditure on food alone and are at high risk of food insecurity;

  • Households in Borno have the highest mean reduced coping strategy (14.3) and thus, engage the use of severe food coping strategies more than their counterparts in Adamawa and Yobe with lower mean reduced coping strategy. Generally, households that are food insecure adopt food based coping strategies more than those that are food secure;

  • Overall, about 71.1 percent of households employed livelihood-based coping strategies acrossthe three northeastern states with more households in Borno (78.6 percent) and Yobe States (75.5 percent) adopting asset depleting coping strategies compared to Adamawa (59.3 percent);

  • About 18.3 percent of households received assistance provided mainly by the government (17.5 percent), NGOs (45.8 percent) and UN agencies (15 percent) during the three months preceding the assessment mostly in the form of free food distributions.

  • The top three priority needs of households in this assessment are food assistance, health/medical services and livelihood support. Food assistance is the main priority of 27.7 percent of households compared to 19.1 percent for medical services and 16.1 percent for livelihood support.

 WFP and other humanitarian agencies will need to prioritize LGAs for food assistance and other humanitarian support based on the March 2017 CH food security classification in the three north eastern states.

 The top priority for the targeting of assistance should focus on all phase 4 LGAs including those with more than 50,000 people who are facing famine-like conditions) which are currently affected by limited market functioning or inaccessibility and very limited livelihood opportunities.

 Local Government Areas which have been classified as CH Phase 3 should also be targeted for assistance.