Climate Risk Profile: Nigeria - Fact Sheet
Nigeria is Africa’s largest economy, most populous country, and home to a wealth of natural resources (particularly oil and natural gas). Unfortunately, these assets have not translated into inclusive growth for the country due to a lack of infrastructure, inadequate power supply, and overall state fragility. Nigeria generates one of the lowest per capita quantities of electricity in the world: 144 kWh per capita in 2014. The poverty rate is over 50 percent, inequality is on the rise, and the economy is subject to volatile oil prices.
Intermittent violence, including Boko Haram insurgency in the North East Zone and agitation for resource control in the Niger Delta, combined with weak governance contribute to the country’s vulnerability. Sectors key to diversified and broader growth, such as agriculture and hydropower, are likely to be negatively impacted as rising temperatures and more variable rainfall disrupt crop and livestock production and reduce the predictability of water flow volumes. Increased flooding from more variable rainfall frequently leads to displacement of households and outbreaks of waterborne diseases such as cholera. Much of Nigeria’s growth has occurred along the coast, home to 25 percent of the population as well as the country’s oil and gas industry, exposing it to rising sea levels, flooding, and erosion. (1, 5, 15, 21, 22, 23)