Adamawa and Borno - COVID-19 Risk Related Indicators: Assessment of Hard-to-Reach Areas in Northeast Nigeria (April 2021)

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The continuation of conflict in Northeast Nigeria has created a complex humanitarian crisis, rendering sections of Borno and Adamawa states as hard to reach (H2R) for humanitarian actors. Previous assessments illustrate how the conflict continues to have severe consequences for people in H2R areas. In addition, general insecurity, compounded by the lack of access to basic services and infrastructure, such as healthcare and information sources, leaves people living in H2R areas highly vulnerable to the spread and impact of COVID-19. The first confirmed cases in Borno and Adamawa states were announced on 20 April and 22 April 2020, respectively. Due to the limited access to H2R areas, it is unlikely that there will be confirmation of an outbreak in these areas. It is therefore highly important to evaluate the situation of the population in H2R areas in order to monitor changes and inform humanitarian aid actors on immediate needs of the communities.


Using its Area of Knowledge (AoK) method, REACH monitors the situation in H2R areas remotely through monthly multisector interviews in accessible Local Government Area (LGA) capitals. REACH interviews key informants (KIs) who are either 1) newly arrived internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have left a H2R settlement in the last month, or 2) KIs who have had contact with someone living in or transiting through a H2R settlement in the last month (e.g. traders, migrants, relatives, etc.).

If not stated otherwise, the recall period is set to one month prior to the last information the KI has had from the hard-to-reach area. Selected KIs are purposively sampled and are interviewed on settlement-wide circumstances in H2R areas. Responses from KIs reporting on the same settlement are then aggregated to the settlement level. The most common response provided by the greatest number of KIs is reported for each settlement. When no most common response could be identified, the response is considered as ‘no consensus’. While included in the calculations, the percentage of settlements for which no consensus was reached is not always displayed in the results below.

Due to precautions related to the COVID-19 outbreak, data was collected remotely through phone based interviews with assistance from local stakeholders. Results presented in this factsheet, unless otherwise specified, represent the proportion of settlements assessed within an LGA. Findings are only reported on LGAs where at least 5% of populated settlements and at least 5 settlements in the respective LGA have been assessed. The findings presented are indicative of broader trends in assessed settlements in April 2021, and are not statistically generalisable. .