The local population living in bordering areas with Mali continue to face attacks by non-State armed groups. Since January 2021, more than 300 civilians have been killed in Tillaberi and Tahoua regions, leading to communities increasingly building up self-defence forces. One of the deadliest recent attacks, on 28 May, killed 19 farmers.
As a direct consequence of the violence and armed conflict, more than 200,000 people have been forcibly displaced in Tillaberi and Tahoua regions, either internally or to Mali. These threats risk affecting the crop season at a time when food insecurity situation is already alarming in these areas, due to the inherent risks to the local populations in accessing their agricultural land.