The Diffa region of Niger has been hosting Nigerian refugees fleeing terrorist violence in the northern states of Niger since 2013. The situation deteriorated dramatically in 2015, with the first attacks on Niger territory in February 2015. The situation became a mixed situation, which included not only Nigerian refugees and returnees (Niger nationals who had migrated but returned to Niger), but also IDPs, who surpassed the numbers of those fleeing Nigeria. The majority of the displaced are currently living in spontaneous sites along the one main road in the region, the Route Nationale 1, while others have settled in local towns and villages with host families. UNHCR have also established two camps in the region, the refugee camp of Sayam Forage (population approximately 6,000) and the IDP camp of Kabelawa (population approximately 10,000). At the end of May and beginning of June 2016, the insurgents carried out a series of violent attacks in the Department of Bosso, in the Diffa region. This has caused another wave of displacement and unprecedented humanitarian needs.
In May 2016, following a rapid basic census of the population in a number of the spontaneous sites, the Government of Niger estimated that were 241, 256 displaced persons in the Diffa region. This included: 82,524 refugees, 31,524 returnees and 127,208 IDPs. Following the attacks at the end of May and beginning of June, the Regional Directorate for Civil Status and Refugees (DREC-R), supported by UNHCR carried out a rapid registration of newly displaced refugees at a series of key sites. Approximately 69,000 people were counted. During the month of July, the Government stated that there are now at least 280,000 displaced persons in the Diffa region.