Summary of major revisions made to emergency plan of action:
This operation update is prepared to formalize the extension of the implementation timeframe until 28 February 2021 due to following reasons:
- Procurement of 6,000 blankets (replenishment) delayed due to technical complexity (production by the selected manufacturer did not pass some of the requirements). The country office is soon to receive a specimen for visual inspection in Nepal to take final decision (acceptance of the goods or retendering).
- Procurement of 6,000 mattresses as part of NFRI kit replenishment at country level. The procurement of mattresses is delayed by one month as the chosen supplier had to shut down the factory due to COVID-19.
- More time required to conduct quality post-distribution monitoring (PDM) and lesson learning processes. This is critical as this operation happened in unusual contexts such as NRCS governance and management changes, COVID-19 restrictions, scattered affected areas across hilly areas, etc.
A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Flood and landslide during the monsoon affected 40 districts across the country specially in Terai and hilly reasons and rainfall over the span of June, July, August and September. The roads blocked due to flood and landslide are being repaired and rehabilitated. The majority of flood and landslide displaced family are returning to their homes.
According to the initial rapid assessment conducted by NRCS, 348 people have lost their lives, mostly due to landslide in hilly districts, with at least another 100 missing, 23,478 families (117,390 people) were affected in various districts 7,457 households were partially destroyed and 5,125 houses were fully destroyed.
The local government and NRCS along with other agencies are engaged in rendering relief services through the provision of shelter items, hygiene items, and health related activities. There are still significant needs for winter clothing, additional food items and water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. People living in temporary shelters made from Tarpaulin in camp setting are still in need for longer-term shelter support and government of Nepal through local government is trying to provide additional support for these families in the long run.
NRCS has deployed 486 trained volunteers on the ground to provide various immediate response like search and rescue, first aid, evacuation and immediate relief as needed. The volunteers were also mobilized to conduct initial rapid assessment in the affected districts and further conducted detailed assessment in 14 districts. The affected NRCS District Chapters worked together with local authorities to conduct assessment and relief distribution as well as support communities to be safe and prepared for the water induced disaster in the future.
NRCS has also been working together with the government, Movement partners and other organizations in COVID-19 preparedness and response operation. The monsoon flood and landslide has also increased the risks of COVID-19 spread in the community, especially those who are displaced by the landslides and kept in temporary shelters. The events of floods and landslides occurred in pocket areas in various districts. Considering the scale of disaster and its impact, IFRC allocated CHF 498,201 from Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) to support NRCS to deliver relief services to the affected population. Most of the activities targeted for the community have been completed except for few procurements being finalized to replenish the NRCS stocks depleted by the operation.
The electricity and communication were disrupted, and roads were blocked due to the floods and landslides in some places. Some of the NRCS volunteers were engaged in search and rescue with security forces in landslide affected district and in drainage maintenance for outflow of water in flooded areas.
The displaced population were residing on temporary shelters, relatives' homes and schools. There was an immediate need of life saving supports such as tarpaulins for emergency shelter, safe drinking water and ready to eat food. In addition, the Initial Rapid Assessment (IRA) shows that affected people were in need for shelter support, drinking water, sanitation facilities, hygiene kits and psychosocial support immediately to fulfill their immediate humanitarian needs. It also showed the special needs for the pregnant and lactating women, children, elderly people, people with chronic diseases and disability.
There is a high risk of COVID-19 transmission among the people affected by the floods and landslides as well as first line responders. Likewise, logistics has been challenging for response of the disasters due to restriction on free movement of vehicles as well as prohibition orders in place in some districts (including in Kathmandu) delaying some of the tendering processes. Similarly, as many schools or public spaces have been used for COVID-19 quarantine sites, it was difficult to evacuate people affected by the floods and landslides. In addition, there was continued risk of floods and landslides affecting the COVID-19 quarantine sites which would have increased the vulnerability of the people in such quarantine sites, while increasing risk of COVID-19 spread in the community. As of 31 October 2020, 170,743 positive cases have been identified in Nepal out of which 131,222 have recovered and the remaining 38,584 are in isolation with 937 deaths due to COVID-19-related complications. All seven provinces and 77 districts in the country have reported one or more cases of COVID-19 since the beginning of COVID-19 epidemic in Nepal. A total of 66 designated COVID-19 laboratories are now functional in the country.