A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Floods and landslides affected 72 districts across the country especially in Terai and hilly regions, as a result of heavy and persistent rainfall in the final week of August and again in October 2021. According to the Ministry of Home Affairs data, between June to 27 October 2021, 262 people (152 men, 101 women and 9 unknown) lost their lives, and 195 people were injured due to the water induced disaster. Furthermore, 16,482 families were affected, of which 5,136 were displaced and 2,473 houses were destroyed. Most of the displaced population took shelter under tarpaulin-made temporary shelters, while a few stayed with relatives or in schools. There were immediate needs for lifesaving support, such as tarpaulins for emergency shelter, safe drinking water and ready-to-eat food. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic increased the risk of COVID-19 transmission to those affected by floods and landslides, as well as to staff and volunteers involved in the response.
After a few weeks, the affected districts' impassable roads caused by landslides were cleared and transportation services resumed. Similarly, electricity and communications that were interrupted were also restored. NRCS volunteers coordinated with security forces to conduct search and rescue (SAR) in landslide-affected districts and to maintain drainage systems in flooded areas. Local government, NRCS, and other organizations/agencies provided immediate relief to those affected by the flood and landslide.
When the floods and landslides began in August, the second wave of COVID-19 was already receding, but experts warned of the possibility of a third wave. The third wave of COVID-19 infection began in late December, with Omicron being the predominant variant. Staff and volunteers strictly adhered to the COVID-19 safety protocols in order to complete the remaining DREF-related tasks, despite the increasing risk of infection at the evacuation centres due to the possibility of community transmission. As of 31 March 2022, 1.1 million people in Nepal have been infected, 965,394 have recovered, and 11,951 have died as a result of COVID-19 complications. Please visit the Ministry of Health and Population's website for additional details. The COVID-19 vaccination campaign began on 27 January 2021, followed by a sporadic inflow of vaccines in the first half of 2021. As of March 2022, 64.2 per cent of the total population had received the initial vaccination dose, while 65.3 per cent were fully immunized.