A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Flood and landslide affected 40 districts across the country especially in Terai and hilly regions due to heavy and continuous rain during the monsoon season in 2020. A total of 360 people (DRR Portal) lost their lives. According to NRCS initial rapid assessment (IRA) report, 23,478 families (117,390 people) were affected due to the disaster.
Furthermore, 5,125 houses were destroyed and 7,457 houses were partially damaged. Out of the total affected families, around 7,000 families were temporarily displaced in landslide areas, but there was no impact on their houses. Most of the displaced population took shelter under temporary shelters (made from tarpaulins) whereas few of them stayed in relatives' homes and schools. There were immediate needs for life-saving supports such as tarpaulins for emergency shelter, safe drinking water and ready to eat food. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic further worsened the situation.
There was a high risk of COVID-19 transmission to the people affected by floods and landslides as well as staff and volunteers involved in the response. Likewise, logistics (procurement and transportation of relief materials) were challenging due to restriction on the movement of vehicles as well as prohibitory orders in some districts resulting in prolonged tendering processes in the procurement of relief items and their transportation. Similarly, as many schools or public spaces were used for COVID-19 quarantine sites, it was difficult to set up temporary shelters for people affected by the floods and landslides in these infrastructures. According to the Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP), as of 15 May 2021, a total of 447,704 COVID-19 positive cases have been identified in Nepal, out of which 333,108 people recovered, 4,856 people lost their lives.
The floods and landslides affected 23,478 families directly or indirectly in the initial stage, but 18,977 families later returned to their homes when the situation normalized. The rest stayed in camps (Dhading, Sankhuwasabha Sindhupalchowk and Lamjung) or temporary shelter near their original residence or living with their relatives in the affected districts. There is a high risk of COVID-19 transmission among the people living in camps.
After a couple of week of the incidents, blockages of roads caused by landslides in affected districts were repaired and rehabilitated. Similarly, the disrupted electricity and communication were also rehabilitated. NRCS volunteers were engaged in search and rescue with security forces in landslide affected district and also in drainage maintenance for outflow of water in flooded areas. Local government and NRCS along with other agencies provided immediate relief to the people affected by the flood and landslide. The support included emergency shelter and non-food relief items.