A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
Heavy rainfall between 11 and 14 August 2017 caused widespread floods across 31 of the country’s 75 districts that has affected more than 1.7 million people. Immediate humanitarian needs in the form of supporting shelter items, food, safe water and health service were clearly seen as gaps in the affected areas.
Following the floods and landslides, Nepal Red Cross Society (NRCS) immediately activated its Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) and responded to the situation by mobilizing trained volunteers and staff in the field to conduct assessments, search and rescue, distribute relief items and provide first aid services to the people affected by the disaster. In total, 1,289 Red Cross volunteers and Junior/Youth Red Cross members including District Disaster Response Team (DDRT) members, trained First Aid and National Disaster Response Team (NDRT) members were deployed for immediate response
On 14 August 2017, IFRC allocated CHF 497,099 from its Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) to support NRCS in conducting relief operations. Based on preliminary findings from Initial Rapid Assessment (IRA) conducted by NRCS, an emergency appeal was launched on 22 August 2017 to meet humanitarian needs of 16,200 families through relief and early recovery.
During the first few days after the disaster, assessments, rescue and relief operations were challenging due to the partial or complete breakdown in communication systems and transportation networks. Moreover, geographical remoteness and scattered communities in the affected areas impeded the timely accomplishment of the operation. Nevertheless, NRCS was able to conduct immediate relief distributions and first aid service to the affected population, through the mobilization of its wide and strong network of volunteers in the community.
The relief phase of the floods operation was completed in November 2017. However, some relief items remained in stock and will be distributed during the recovery phase as per the needs on the ground. These health and WASH related items will be distributed as samples during promotion and prevention activities in the recovery phase of the operation.
In November 2017, a post -distribution monitoring (PDM) was conducted in nine districts (Bardiya, Jhapa, Mahottari, Rautahat, Saptari, Sarlahi, Siraha, Sunsari and Udayapur) to measure the level of satisfaction among the people reached by NRCS during the response phase of the operation. The PDM report has been finalized and is available for reference.
Rolling out of recovery activities has started in the field including baseline survey, beneficiary selection as well as orientation of NRCS staff and volunteers.
The recovery activities of the floods and landslides operation are defined in accordance with findings from preassessment visits conducted by NRCS and IFRC as well as the post flood recovery needs assessment (PFRNA) conducted by the National Planning Commission (NPC), Government of Nepal. In addition, findings and recommendation from the PDM were referred to during the planning process. Based on this, the IFRC emergency plan of action was revised on 23 March 2018. The main focus of the recovery programme is on WASH, health, livelihood, shelter and, disaster risk reduction (DRR), capacity building, community engagement and accountability (CEA), gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) as cross-cutting to the core sectors in an integrated approach. For more information about the revised plan of action, kindly click here.
Summary of current response
Overview of Host National Society
The Nepal Red Cross Society has been playing a key role in the response to the floods situation among other key humanitarian agencies. The National Society completed the relief phase of the floods operation in November 2017. The main activities during this period included distribution of non-food relief items (NFRI) full sets, tarpaulins and blankets, food items (ready to eat food-RTEF: biscuits, beaten rice, instant noodles along with staple food), mosquito nets as well as water sanitation and hygiene (WASH) kits which consists of soap, bucket, oral rehydration salts (ORS) and aqua tabs. In addition, NRCS volunteers were mobilized to support in health camps where over 20,000 people were reached. The figures below provide an overview of the people reached by NRCS during the relief phase.
Overview of Red Cross Red Crescent Movement in country
IFRC has been supporting the NRCS in coordinating the relief operation, conducting post-distribution monitoring and baseline survey, reconciling beneficiary lists and maintaining proper documentation of floods operation activities.
Currently, there are 14 in-country Movement partners supporting the NRCS in 2015 Nepal earthquake recovery work and some of them are also supporting the longer-term development programmes bilaterally. They include American Red Cross, Australian Red Cross, Belgian (Flanders) Red Cross, British Red Cross, Canadian Red Cross, Danish Red Cross, Japanese Red Cross Society, Korean Red Cross, Norwegian Red Cross, Qatari Red Crescent Society, Spanish Red Cross and Swiss Red Cross well as IFRC and ICRC. NRCS has kept all partners updated on the situation, current needs and response plans through Movement Coordination Meetings, sharing of situation reports and through oneon-one meetings/discussions. For the floods operation, American Red Cross is supporting Sarlahi District and British red Cross Jhapa District through bilateral agreements with NRCS.
NRCS and IFRC floods management team conducted pre-assessment visits in seven flood affected districts (Sunsari, Saptari, Udayapur, Siraha, Mahottari, Rautahat and Bardiya) from 5 to 17 November 2017. Together with district chapters, they visited some flood affected communities. The visit was accompanied by two representatives from the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DfID) in Sunsari, Saptari and Bardiya districts where they held discussions with the District Disaster Relief Committee (DDRC) and other local government representatives in Sunsari and Bardiya.