A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Major highlight of the operation update:
• The number of families to be supported with shelter cash grants has been increased to 2,501 upon request from the government to support additional families from its grievance list.
Description of the disaster
An earthquake measuring 7.8 magnitude struck an area between Kathmandu and Pokhara in the morning of 25 April 2015. A series of aftershocks continued to impact the country, causing further damage and panic. The strongest aftershock, measuring 7.3 magnitude, struck on 12 May 2015 at 12:50 local time at the border of Dolakha and Sindhupalchok districts. The combined impact of 25 April 2015 quake and the 12 May 2015 aftershock resulted in 8,856 casualties and at least 17,932 injured people. In addition to loss of life and human suffering, the two quakes caused extensive destruction and damage to housing, infrastructure and livelihoods, leading to a drastic reduction in living conditions, income, and access to basic services, such as health and water and sanitation. More than 1.1 million families were affected and 700,000 families displaced. Secondary data analysis and earthquake intensity mapping indicated that up to 602,000 houses were fully destroyed and a further 280,000 damaged. The infrastructure damage included schools, health facilities, bridges and roads. More than 30,000 classrooms were destroyed or damaged. According to the government, 14 districts were severely affected (Category A) and include Gorkha, Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Lalitpur, Sindhupalchok, Ramechhap, Dolakha, Nuwakot, Dhading, Rasuwa, Sindhuli, Okhaldhunga, Makwanpur, and Kavre. In addition, nine districts (Sangja, Chitwan, Kaski, Tanahu, Khotang, Solukhumbu, Udayapur, Bhojpur and Lamjung) with medium level damages (Category B), were also affected. Many of the hardest-hit areas were rural, with some of them remote and difficult to reach, due to landslides and damaged/blocked access routes.
Nepal experienced incessant rainfall between 11 and 14 August 2017, resulting in widespread floods across 31 of the country’s 75 districts. According to the Nepal Red Cross Society assessment report of 7 September 2017, the floods affected over 1.7 million people in 31 districts. Four of the earthquake affected districts were also affected by the floods (Sindhuli, Makawanpur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur). In response to the floods situation, IFRC allocated Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) of CHF 497,099 on 14 August 2017 to support NRCS in carrying out immediate relief activities.
An Emergency Appeal of CHF 3.5 million was launched on 22 August 2017 to meet humanitarian needs of 16,200 families, based on the initial rapid assessment (IRA) preliminary findings. For more information about the floods operation, refer to this link: Nepal Floods 2017 Nepal held Federal Parliament and Provincial Assembly elections simultaneously in two phases on 26 November and 7 December 2017. These elections have been crucial steps to implement the milestone new constitution of Nepal promulgated in September 2015 and are in line with the new Federal structure. Following the parliamentary polls, the 41st Prime Minister was sworn in on 15 February 2018 by the President.
The new Nepal federal structure has been implemented where the provincial, municipal and local bodies have been created separately. The government still has to set up offices, recruit staff and most of all, elections will be held to select the people who will run these bodies. NRCS is also reviewing its internal working structure to be in line with the Federal structure. Delay in activity implementation may be experienced since NRCS works in coordination with local authorities.
Delays may also be experienced due to some of the local offices not being set up yet or new staff in the offices set up who will need orientation to understand NRCS programmes.