As a country with diverse typography, complex geology and highly varying climate, Nepal is exposed to many natural and human-induced hazards. In a global comparison, Nepal ranks 4th in terms of climate risk according to the Global Climate Risk Index which assesses the impacts of meteorological events in relation to economic losses and human fatalities (Eckstein, et al., 2019). Also, the country ranks 11th in terms of global risk for earthquake occurrence and impact (Maplecroft 2011, BCPR 2004 cited in MoHA 2015). The country is in top 20 of all the multi-hazard countries in the world.
Nepal’s population has surpassed 29 million people (Central Bureau of Statistics, 2018), of which almost 80% depend on agriculture-based livelihoods. Limited domestic economy, geographically dispersed, unconnected population, as well as diverse groups belonging to various castes contribute to the compounding social vulnerability to disasters. More than 80% of the population is exposed to the risk of natural hazards (MoHA, 2017), which include earthquakes, droughts, floods, landslides, extreme temperature, and glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs).