Myanmar

Myanmar: Myanmar: National CCCM Cluster Factsheet, April 2017

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KEY DATES & RESPONSIBILITIES

  • Activation of the CCCM Cluster: January 2013

  • Leadership: UNHCR

  • UNHCR also leads shelter & NFI Cluster and Protection Sector

CONTEXT

Breakdown of a ceasefire agreement in KACHIN State in 2011 caused waves of displacement with over 90,000 IDPs dispersed across 150+ camps or camp-like settings, including areas of Northern Shan State (Shan). An additional 7,000 IDPs are staying with host families. About 50% of camps are located in non-government controlled areas (NGCA) with very limited access.

In RAKHINE State, displacement occurred in 2012 due to inter-communal clashes and burning of houses. From an initial caseload of 140,000+ IDPs in 2013. 2015 20,000+ persons were able to vacate their temporary shelter and assisted to build their own individual houses through a process of owner-driven construction. 60% in their place of origin, 40% in new locations. This resulted in the number of camps (or camp-like settings) decreasing from 67 to now being 36. Still, 120,000 IDPs reside in camps where overcrowding and lack of privacy remain huge problems and in structures that were originally designed and built in 2013 to be temporary and last two years. During the rainy season conditions worsen as there are inadequate drainage systems. Significant restrictions on freedom of movement limit access to livelihoods, healthcare, food, education and other basic services. This also affects parts of the non-displaced population.

PRIORITIES

KACHIN/SHAN Key priorities remain 1) humanitarian assistance being wellmanaged and coordinated; 2) participatory and community-based development approaches are integrated into planning and implementation; and 3) when return or relocation is possible, IDPs are well-prepared to rebuild their lives permanently within a reasonable amount of time and be able to contribute to social cohesion. Many shelters that were built before Cluster activation did not meet minimum standards/guidelines, significantly. Addressing these needs plus the fact that unless solutions are found it remains a perpetual cycle of replacing sub-standard/no longer habitable temporary shelters. Need for mass blanket NFI distributions have passed but some NFIs for vulnerable cases continue.

RAKHINE While through Cluster partners and their camp management activities there is good coverage of over 90 per cent of the IDP caseload, the need to reform the Camp Management Committees (CMCs) remains the single biggest and most persistent challenge. The CMC’s responsibility fails to be enforced, they are appointed not elected, fail to be representative of their residents and have proved corrupt, violent, block humanitarian assistance, prone to extortion and yet benefit from impunity. Constructive engagement/advocacy with the government continues as to how they could be reformed but tangible action is critically dependent upon the authority of the State. NFI needs are more acute due to over-crowded conditions, severe restrictions on freedom of movement and access to basic services. Most temporary shelters have been subjected to a 4 th rainy season, which results in massive temporary shelter repair and maintenance needs of US$3.9 million. 60 per cent raised has/or is being implemented. A gap of US$1.3 million remains.