Myanmar Humanitarian Fund Annual Report 2018
2018 IN REVIEW
This Annual Report presents information on the achievements of the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund during the 2018 calendar year. However, because grant allocation, project implementation and reporting processes often take place over multiple years (CBPFs are designed to support ongoing and evolving humanitarian responses), the achievement of CBPFs are reported in two distinct ways:
Information on allocations for granted in 2018 (shown in blue). This method considers intended impact of the allocations rather than achieved results as project implementation and reporting often continues into the subsequent year and results information is not immediately available at the time of publication of annual reports.
Results reported in 2018 attributed to allocations granted in 2018 and prior years (shown in orange). This method provides a more complete picture of achievements during a given calendar year but includes results from allocations that were granted in previous years. This data is extracted from final narrative reports approved between 1 January 2018 – 31 January 2019.
Figures for people targeted and reached may include double counting as individuals often receive aid from multiple cluster and sectors. Contribution recorded based on the exchange rate when the cash was received which may differ from the Certified Statement of Accounts that records contributions based on the exchange rate at the time of the pledge.
Humanitarian situation in 2018
The humanitarian situation in Myanmar remained fragile as protracted humanitarian crises continued in several parts of the country, including the armed-conflict in Rakhine State, with the extension of the conflict in Paletwa township, Chin State; population displacement in Kachin and Shan; and natural disasters. The key drivers of the humanitarian needs include underlying vulnerability due to protracted denial of rights, limited access to basic services, conflict, insecurity and climatic shocks. According to the 2019 Humanitarian Needs Overview (HNO), by the end of 2018, the people in need of humanitarian assistance in Myanmar are estimated at 941,000 (1.7 per cent of the total population).
Complex crisis in Rakhine State
In Rakhine State, the situation deteriorated following armed attacks and subsequent security operations by Government forces in August 2017 that led to the exodus of around 725,000 people –mostly stateless Muslims who self-identify as Rohingya– to Bangladesh, including nearly 15,000 crossing the border in 2018. The Rohingya who remain in Rakhine, estimated at 470,000 people, continued to face discriminatory policies and practices, including segregation, severe movement restrictions and denial of rights. This number includes approximately 126,000 Rohingya who have lived in camps or camp-like settings in central Rakhine since intercommunal violence in 2012. The combination of protracted displacement, statelessness, movement restrictions, segregation, limited access to quality services (such as health and education) and livelihoods opportunities has exacerbated the displaced people’s vulnerability, making them highly dependent on humanitarian assistance and exposing them to uncertainties, causing psychosocial distress. In addition to the stateless Rohingya, an estimated 117,000 people including vulnerable people in the ethnic Rakhine community and ethnic minority groups continue to have humanitarian needs because of the re-emergence of armed-conflict in 2012, 2016 and 2017.
Conflict escalation in Chin State
Renewed clashes between the Arakan Army (AA) and the Myanmar military in Paletwa township, in the Southern part of Chin State caused new and secondary displacement of around 700 people and affecting other 7,000 people within the host communities. This situation is deepened to the existing vulnerability in the area, particularly in terms of food security and nutrition and access to health and water.
Protracted displacement in Kachin and Shan
In Kachin and Shan states, over 106,000 people remain displaced because of the armed conflict that re-started in 2011. In addition, over 36,000 people were temporarily displaced in 2018 due to armed clashes. Protracted displacement and renewed fighting continue to aggravate vulnerabilities of the displaced and other crisis affected people, especially women, children, elderly people and persons with disabilities. The continued presence of landmines and explosive remnants of war poses a major threat to civilians, hampering access to livelihood opportunities and sustainable solutions. While large-scale durable solutions remain elusive for most of the displaced people due to continued armed clashes, partners continue to support small-scale solutions for displaced people in Kachin in line with international standards.
Myanmar’s vulnerability to natural disasters resulted in significant humanitarian needs that will continue for the foreseeable future. Monsoon seasonal floods triggered by heavy rains in 2018 affected several states and regions in Myanmar, particularly in the South-East, which exacerbated existing vulnerabilities and caused additional needs with about 268,000 people temporarily displaced in June 2018, according to the Government’s Department of Disaster Management. The Government led the flood response, in cooperation with state/regional authorities and with the support of national and international humanitarian organizations. The Government continues to build its disaster management capacities with the support of OCHA and other partners.
Security and access constraints
Humanitarian partners -national and international- faced increasing challenges in accessing affected people. Independent and impartial humanitarian organizations have varying levels of access to crisis-affected people in Kachin, Shan and Rakhine states. Access largely depends on travel authorizations from the authorities at Union and State levels. In some areas, humanitarian organizations face significant access constraints, resulting in difficulties and delays in implementing and monitoring humanitarian activities.
In the central part of Rakhine State, humanitarian organizations continued to have access affected people after submitting detailed and restrictive paperwork. Notwithstanding the approval of regular travel authorizations, incidents of additional and duplicate paperwork being requested were reported. The timeconsuming bureaucratic procedures hampered the ability of humanitarian workers to provide flexible and timely assistance to communities in need.
In Kachin and northern Shan, UN agencies have not been permitted by the Government to deliver assistance to people in need in areas beyond Government control since June 2016. During 2018 none of their 21 applications to access these areas was approved by the Government. As such. international humanitarian organizations have not had access to 55% of the displaced people.
National partners continued to have access to most areas, but their access was unpredictable and complicated by delays and cumbersome procedures. Access to people within Government-controlled areas continued to decline, with some national staff of UN agencies prevented from accessing people in need.
The MHF played a critical role prioritizing humanitarian interventions in hard-to-reach areas through communitybased organizations (CSOs) and national actors with operational capacity and demonstrated presence, particularly there were access was denied by the Government to the international actors. This was possible through direct funding or in consortium with international NGOs and UN agencies. The lack of access also affected the regular monitoring activities of the Fund and requires in some cases the application of alternate modalities, mainly the use of remote monitoring calls, with the collaboration of the affected communities, funded partners, sub-implementing organizations, and clusters and sectors.
The MHF was sensible to the evolving context, pro-actively consulting to funded partners, clusters and sectors, and demonstrating flexibility regarding reprogramming of the initial planned activities, redeployment of funds, changes of location and requests of no-cost extension.
Humanitarian Response Plan
Total population: 53.8 million
People targeted: 832,000
People reached: 493,000
Requirements: $183.4 million
Funded: $131. 2 million