Myanmar: 2019 Humanitarian Needs Overview
1. Protection of civilians and durable solutions for displaced people
In Kachin and Shan, ongoing armed conflict continues to result in displacement and family separation. There continue to be reports of violations of international humanitarian laws and international human rights laws including – but not limited to – arbitrary killings and arrests, detention, child abduction and forced recruitment, child trafficking and exploitation, gender-based violence and grave human rights violations, particularly against women, children and the most marginalized and vulnerable groups. Humanitarian access remains restricted, particularly to people in areas beyond Government control, hampering the delivery of assistance and protection services to people in need. This is compounded by the restrictions on freedom of movement of the affected population, particularly those in areas beyond Government control. In Rakhine, Muslim people – most of whom are stateless Rohingya Muslims – continue to be affected by discriminatory policies and practices, including movement restrictions, denial of rights, intimidation, harassment, extortion/abuse and hostility from the local population in some areas. Protracted displacement, segregation and lack of access to livelihoods opportunities and quality services continue to put affected people at high risk of gender-based violence, human trafficking, family separation and physical insecurity.
2. Access of vulnerable, crisis-affected
Over 244,000 people remain displaced as a result of the armed conflict that resumed in Kachin and Shan in 2011 and as a result of violence, inter-communal tensions and continued segregation of communities in some parts of Rakhine since 2012. The majority of the IDPs remain dependent on humanitarian assistance to meet their basic needs. For some, this is a direct result of the continued restrictions on their freedom of movement (due to blocked access to citizenship) while for others, it relates largely to limited livelihoods opportunities which is a key contributing factor to psychosocial distress and harmful coping strategies, for both children and families. In most camps, displaced people continue to live in over-crowded conditions in shelters that were meant to be temporary and that go through regular cycles of repairs. In Kachin, limited access to livelihoods especially for food-insecure people in non-government controlled areas forces some people to cross the border into China to seek temporary job opportunities. Some of these people do not have official travel documents, putting them at further risk. Women, men, girls and boys face risks of being illegally trafficked. In Rakhine, service provision remains unequal, largely as a result of discriminatory policies including movement restrictions applicable to Rohingya people. This puts many people at risk, particularly women and girls, elderly and disabled people, as well as those in need of urgent life-saving medical attention and those needing access to sexual and reproductive health services.
3. Strengthening the resilience of communities and national capacities to prepare for and respond to natural disasters and other emergencies
Myanmar is one of the countries at highest risk of natural disasters in South-East Asia. It is also a country where many people are affected by conflict and instability. There is a continued need for an integrated approach to strengthen the resilience of communities, to enhance national capacity to monitor, prepare for and respond to natural disasters and other emergencies, and to support the Government in meeting urgent humanitarian needs of people affected by natural disasters and other emergencies. The World Humanitarian Summit reaffirmed the need to reinforce national and local leadership; to ensure local actors (including women’s groups and children/youth representatives) are consulted on decisions affecting them and are supported both technically and financially; to ensure that women, children, youth, persons with disabilities, older persons and other vulnerable groups benefit from tailored support; to work with the private sector and to use modern technology. Institutional capacity strengthening is fundamental to enabling national and local actors to scale up and maintain quality standards, and move towards more sustainable responses.