Mozambique + 1 more

Mozambique & Zimbabwe: Flood Rehabilitation Appeal No. 04/2000 Situation Report No. 12

(Change of Appeal title)
Focus on Mozambique

period covered: July - September, 2000

The implementation phase of the flood rehabilitation and development phase of the International Federation and Participating National Society (PNS) operations in Mozambique have begun slowly, due to the complexity of those operations -covering health rehabilitation and community based health care, water and sanitation, disaster preparedness and institutional and resource development -logistical difficulties, stretched capacity within the Mozambique Red Cross and the slow pledging of financial support. However, by the end of September PNS rehabilitation activities were well under way in Maputo city and province, Gaza and Inhambane provinces, and financial support had been pledged allowing the Federation to begin programme implementation preparations in Sofala, Manica and Tete provinces. Meanwhile, the Federation delegation continued to provide a broad range of coordinative and support services to the Mozambique Red Cross and the PNS. It assisted the Mozambique Red Cross in the design of minimum standards and training for all programme areas; and the Federation supported the National Society through a major strategic review and the first phase of an organisational change process designed to expand its capacity in the medium to long term in a sustainable way.

While Appeal 04/2000 was regional in nature (covering Botswana, Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe), the majority of the flood relief and rehabilitation operation was focused on Mozambique. This Situation Report is limited to activities in Mozambique alone; with operations in the other countries either complete, significantly scaled-down, or covered bi-laterally, the title of this appeal is now changed to "Mozambique and Zimbabwe: Flood Rehabilitation", and further sitreps will reflect this title.

The context

The record-breaking rainfall which hit Mozambique from December 1999 onwards, exacerbated by the devastating effects of Cyclone Eline in February 2000, led to three of the country’s major river basins suffering the most extensive flooding in fifty years. Approximately 1.2 million people, 27% of Mozambique’s population were affected by the flooding, with 700 deaths, almost a hundred missing and 544,000 displaced from their homes. As well as the immediate human cost, damage to infrastructure (housing and public buildings, roads and telecommunications networks) was extensive. The Mozambique government estimates that 10% of the country’s cultivated lands were destroyed and 90% of its irrigation structures damaged, debilitating its medium-term recovery prospects.

From the earliest days of the crisis, the Mozambique Red Cross (Cruz Vermelha de Moçambique -CVM) volunteers were involved in rescue and relief activities, risk warning, provision of first aid (to 43,322 beneficiaries), health education (34,237 beneficiaries), chlorination of water (68,247 beneficiaries), building of latrines, psycho-social support and fundraising. Supported by the International Federation’s delegation in Maputo, the National Society made emergency relief distributions to 20,242 families in 100 separate distributions in the southern provinces (Maputo city and the provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane); and from Beira in Sofala province further relief distributions to 2,500 families in 25 distributions. In late June and early July the relief phase of the CVM and Federation operation ended with the distribution of ‘reinstallation kits’ to over 10,000 families in 70 distribution points across six provinces to help them re-establish new homes In total, the CVM and Federation-supplied relief items to 32,804 families (approximately 164,000 people) in 195 separate distributions, including 64,130 blankets, 18,150 jerry cans, 15,048 kitchen sets and 5,000 seed and tool kits.

The focus of the International Federation and CVM then turned to the substantial rehabilitation and development needs which still existed in Mozambique. Following an extensive series of in-depth assessments in May and June made by the National Society, Federation and PNS, a revised Emergency Appeal was issued in July 2000 which integrated the immediate post-flooding rehabilitation needs with programming originally set out in the Country Assistance Strategy. The Fourth Revised Emergency Appeal of 17 July 2000 therefore established a comprehensive programme strategy for the National Society, supported by the International Federation and including the PNS bilateral programmes, for the following 18 months until the end of 2001. It concentrated on two areas: firstly, the rehabilitation of local health, water and sanitation facilities affected by the flooding; and secondly, on increasing the future capacity of the most vulnerable communities nationwide through community-based first aid and disaster preparedness and response programmes, anchored in the development of stronger National Society branches and district and provincial organizational structures.

Latest events

Mozambique’s political landscape continues to be affected by last December’s general election, after which the Frelimo party returned to power following a close result in which it just beat the opposition Renamo party. Renamo challenged the election results, accusing the government of electoral fraud, but these claims were rejected by the Supreme Court. On 4 October, the eighth anniversary of the signing of the Rome Peace Accord, Renamo announced plans for a nationwide series of demonstrations designed to bring down the government. In contrast, Mozambican President Joaquim Chissano recommitted his government to the preservation of peace and the consolidation of national unity, in order to promote the country’s cultural, social and economic development. The president also reshuffled the country’s provincial governors, though he did not bow to political pressure to include Renamo nominees in the new appointments, despite strong opposition particularly in the central provinces.

Meanwhile, Mozambique’s National Institute of Meteorolgy presented in September its first long term forecast for the rainy season which begins this month. It broke the country into three sectors and provided forecasts for the October- December 2000 and January-March 2001 quarters. It forecast rainfall that was higher than normal in the central provinces of Sofala, Manica and Tete for the remainder of the year, and of normal to above normal levels for the first quarter of next year. It also anticipated normal to above normal rainfall in the southern sector of the country for the rest of the year.

These forecasts come on top of extremely high water tables and waterlogged soils that still exist following the flooding last February-March. They further galvanised disaster preparedness planning in Mozambique by the CVM and the Federation, which in turn resulted in the preparation of an additional proposal outside of the Federation’s July 2000 revised appeal requesting extra DP stocks and equipment which would be pre-positioned in Maputo, Beira and Chimoio ahead of the second half of the rainy season. This proposal was presented initially at the Partnership Meeting in Maputo held on 18 October (details from the Geneva Secretariat).

Red Cross/Red Crescent action

From early in the flood relief operation the Mozambique delegation aligned its own role in conformity with the new direction of the International Federation: namely, to concentrate its activities on providing the strategic framework for the Movement’s external support to the National Society; coordinating, facilitating and supporting this assistance; and implementing programmes itself only when it was best placed to do so. This proved to be a considerable challenge, given the wide range of PNS programming and the presence of six PNS implementing delegations or country representatives in Mozambique. Nevertheless, with the CVM the Federation established and ran co-ordination fora at the Head of Delegation and technical specialisation level; set with the National Society a series of minimum standards in the programme management and training spheres; and ensured that programme delivery standards were uniform and consistent in their application and scope.

Since the launching of the fourth revision of the Federation’s Emergency Appeal for Mozambique in July 2000, the following results have been achieved by the International Federation and the Participating National Society’s in-country delegations.

Institutional Development

In August the Mozambique Red Cross held a conference to discuss a revision of its strategy and structure as a result of the new challenges and opportunities following its flood-relief activities and the greater resources and commitment now available from the Federation and the PNS. The conference highlighted the key strategic importance of health programming, particularly HIV/AIDS prevention and community health promotion (the ARCHI 2010 initiative), and disaster preparedness. A special health strategy workshop followed, bringing together health coordinators and professionals from the CVM, Federation’s country and regional delegations, and PNS delegations, to discuss how this new focus might begin to be implemented.

The conclusions of these strategy meetings were integrated by CVM’s senior management into a revised strategic and programmatic focus, followed in the last quarter of the year by the drawing up of a new organisational design at both headquarters and provincial levels which is currently being considered by the National Society’s Executive Council. The Federation delegation advised and supported the CVM throughout this process of organisational change.

The CVM also decided to create a new logistics department to address one of the weaknesses highlighted by the flood relief operation. The Federation organised and ran a logistics workshop for CVM staff, the first in a series of capacity building measures in this important area.

Water and Sanitation Programmes

The Federation’s water and sanitation project in southern Gaza province, funded by the British, Austrian and Netherlands Red Cross Societies, is nearing completion. Fifty of the 58 targeted new boreholes were drilled by the end of September, with 47 aprons and handpumps fitted. The same proportion of geophysical surveys had been completed. Almost all water point apron rehabilitations are finished though a further 34 handpump rehabilitations remain to be completed. The target for communal latrines has been exceeded due to rising needs (31 instead of the targeted 25), but the major shortfall has occurred in the installation of family latrines, where only 552 of the 2,100 planned had been completed by the end of the reporting period. This was due to the local supplier’s failure to provide sufficient concrete slabs in time. This problem is expected to be overcome in the next month.

The community training of water maintenance groups has also fallen behind schedule due to the difficulty in finding sufficient trainers and National Society counterparts. However, by the end of September a new CVM community trainer had been identified and plans are underway to train more volunteers and finish the programme on time in November.

Meanwhile, the Federation continued to assist the National Society in the coordination of the wide range of existing and planned water and sanitation activities. A watsan strategy for the next three years was elaborated, covering the entire country but focusing on the special needs of the northern provinces of Mozambique. The Federation also worked closely with the American Red Cross and CVM in the development of community education and training modules in water and sanitation related activities. This is recognised as being vital if water and sanitation investments in both hardware facilities and the capacities of the National Society in this sector are to be sustained in the long term.

Disaster Preparedness (DP) Programmes

The results of the strategy review of the National Society, the assessment of countrywide DP needs in preparation for the revised appeal of July, and a preliminary evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the CVM’s disaster response activities in the flood relief operation led to the recognition by the Mozambique Red Cross of the need to establish a comprehensive DP strategy and plan of action. This strategy has been developed over the last four months by the CVM and Federation outlining priorities for the National Society in this area for the next two years.

Disaster Preparedness stock as set out in the revised appeal is presently being procured, including minimum standard DP items as identified by the CVM and the Federation which include one tent, two blankets, two jerry cans, two buckets, and two kits of clothes. Following forecasts by the National Meteorolgy Institute of Mozambique that already high water tables are likely to be exacerbated by higher than normal rains during the 2000-2001 rainy season, an additional DP stock list was drawn up to ensure that sufficient DP stocks were available for over 10,000 people (2,400 families) nationwide, with the stocks pre-positioned in separate locations to make them flexible to disasters in different parts of the country.

In late July a training course for CVM volunteers from across the country on Disaster Preparedness (DP) was held in Maputo, which was the first of its kind. The methodology developed was subsequently used to help develop a standard series of DP training modules for the National Society. (A report of this course has been produced by CVM and is available in English.)

Federation Implemented Programmes in Sofala, Manica and Tete Provinces

At the request of and with the support of the British, Canadian, Austrian and Netherlands Red Cross, the Federation delegation also completed preparations to establish a programme implementation structure in the central provinces of Sofala, Manica and Tete to carry out the programming outlined in the appeal, beginning in November 2000. It also prepared and budgeted for a similar structure in the northern provinces of Niassa, Nampula, Cabo Delgado and Zambezia in case PNS implementing partners are not found.

Participating National Societies

German Red Cross - Gaza Province

The German Red Cross took responsibility for all programme implementation outlined in the 17 July rehabilitation Revised Emergency Appeal for the province of Gaza. Working closely with the CVM and the International Federation, the following achievements have been accomplished so far:

  • Work at eight different construction sites has begun, supervised by a technical team based in Chokwe in Gaza province. The construction projects include the construction of a Type II health centre at Manjangue, the rehabilitation of a rural hospital in Caniçado and of the health centres in Mubangwene, Chinhacanine, Mpelane and Chibuto. First aid posts for the CVM are also being constructed. Programme implementation has been much slower than forecast due to logistical difficulties, exacerbated by unexpected rains, and delays in the work of local contractors and sub-contractors.
  • A detailed health training analysis and workshop was conducted led by the International Federation’s Regional Health Coordinator to establish a health project proposal in the targeted districts of Gaza province, and the model for a national health training module which will be used in all other provinces. Budget approval for this project is pending.
  • New water and sanitation facilities have been provided in the village of Caniçado. A water tower and generator were provided and new pipes laid, though difficulties remain in overcoming problems related to the low water pressure in the system. Work is continuing on other water and sanitation interventions in Chibuto and Chimundo. A detailed analysis of water and sanitation needs in the southern Gaza area was also made in preparation for a project submission to the European Union.

American Red Cross - Maputo Province

By the end of September 65 new boreholes had been drilled by the ARC, of which 51 have been equipped with handpumps. The remaining 20% were dry, necessitating an extension of the drilling programme to 87 boreholes and up to 80 geophysical surveys. The programme also intends to fund the rehabilitation of small water systems for the towns of Sabie, Ressano Garcia, Namaacha, Goba and Marracuene. Work in Goba is already completed, though additional activities may be needed there. The CVM and ARC have finished the construction of one windmill, small water tower and four tapstands in the resettlement area of Khongolote, with another planned. In addition, 380 of the planned 1,100 latrines in Magoanine and 500 in Khongolote have also been installed.

The community education component of the water and sanitation project has been more delayed in its implementation. Nevertheless, a theatre troupe comprising six CVM volunteers have performed educational performances on proper latrine use, diarrhea prevention, oral dehydration therapy and other hygiene related subjects to 3,200 beneficiaries in 32 communities throughout Maputo province. Work is continuing on the development, with the CVM and the Federation, of minimum standards and training module for community water and sanitation education and pump maintenance that will then be used nationwide with all water and sanitation ‘hardware’ interventions.

Spanish Red Cross (SRC) - Gaza, Maputo City and Province

Four of the SRC’s water treatment/purification units are still functioning in Xai-Xai, producing 90m3 per day to cover the needs of the town, and another unit in Chokwe at the local hospital. The other units are currently being prepared for handover to the CVM as part of their future disaster preparedness and disaster response capacity. Meanwhile, distributions of basic household and selected hygiene items have continued each month in Maputo city and province, with a total of 7,261 families receiving household kits and 2,875 health kits.

Danish Red Cross (DRC) - Inhambane Province

All imported goods planned for remaining distributions were received in September, with distributions to the districts, packing of kits and final delivery to the beneficiaries ongoing. The total of 2,128 malaria kits delivered in September surpassed the monthly target of 2,050. Only 40 DRC re-settlement kits have been distributed so far as the local production of wood materials for them has fallen behind schedule. The producer has taken measures to enhance production and it is hoped that the total quantity would be completed in time for final distribution during October. Ninety-nine CVM volunteers received training in preparation for distributions.

Meanwhile 300 pit-latrines have so far been constructed, 50% of the target. Some areas for re-settlement are not suitable for installation of pit-latrine and the scope of this programme component may be altered in the last phase of the project.

The revised drawings and documents for rehabilitation of the Chacane Health Centre were submitted to the Ministry of Health and received approval at the end of September. The final programming and revision of the DRC budget was also concluded that month, with the inclusion of three CVM district offices and two sets of radios (for disaster preparedness).

International Federation Service Delivery to PNS

The Federation delegation also provided a wide range of services to PNS delegations, including office accommodation and administrative support; translation services; financial services; telecommunications; transportation, warehousing and other logistical support; the formation of security regulations and procedures; technical advice and consultancy services in the areas of health, water and sanitation and institutional development; and general advice and management support. The Federation also vigorously pursued the signing of a status agreement between it and the Mozambique Government so that it could facilitate its own operations and provide additional services to the PNS such as tax and customs benefits.

Outstanding needs

The Federation delegation in Mozambique urgently requires both human and financial resources. A new Programme Coordinator to oversee rehabilitation programmes and two delegates - including a Head of Sub-Delegation - for Sofala are urgently required. Funding is also needed for the Federation’s general programme management. The Federation is also searching for donors to support the additional procurement of Disaster Preparedness supplies ahead of the second half of the rainy season in the first quarter of 2001.

External relations - Government/UN/NGOs/Media

At the beginning of September, the International Federation’s President Astrid Heiberg visited Mozambique. Meetings were arranged with the Prime Minister and a Deputy Foreign Minister and press coverage was gained following a press conference arranged at the end of her trip. Coordination meetings between the plethora of humanitarian organisations have not been a feature of the Mozambique post-flood operations but the Federation is involved with a group of agencies linked to the British Disaster Emergency Committee (DEC) which it is hoped can become the kernel for deeper cooperation and coordination of many other NGOs in the future.


See Annex 1 for details.


The strategic direction and programming outlined in the revised appeal of July 2000 for Mozambique has proved to be exactly in tune with the future direction of the CVM, though greatly optimistic in terms of how much could be implemented during the current year. The National Society, Federation and PNS now expect full implementation of the appeal to carry over well into 2001, and this has been integrated by the Federation in the preparation of its Country Assistance Strategy appeal document for 2001-2002. With sufficient funding and other donor support, it is expected that the Mozambique Red Cross can establish health (including ARCHI and HIV/AIDS) water and sanitation, and disaster preparedness programming that will make a significant impact on the lives of vulnerable people in Mozambique at the same time as develop institutionally the capacity to sustain these programmes in the long run.

Bekele Geleta
Africa Department

Peter Rees-Gildea
Operations Funding and Reporting Department

This and other reports on Federation operations are available on the Federation's website: