Displacement in Mozambique
Mozambique’s HDI value for 2019 is 0.456— which put the country in the low human development category— positioning it at 181 out of 189 countries and territories. Between 1990 and 2019, Mozambique’s HDI value increased from 0.227 to 0.456, an increase of 100.9 percent. Between 1990 and 2019, Mozambique’s life expectancy at birth increased by 15.6 years, mean years of schooling increased by 2.7 years and expected years of schooling increased by 6.2 years. Mozambique’s GNI per capita increased by about 172.7 percent between 1990 and 2019. Adding to this scenario and compounding protection concerns in the country is the situation of internal displacement. Mozambique has been faced with large-scale internal displacement resulting from insecurity, violence and recurrent disasters. As of March 2021, there were 697,538 internally displaced persons (IDPs) in northern Mozambique, due to recent security incidents and violence. Of those, over 630,000 have moved to Cabo Delgado, 64,000 to Nampula, and the remaining 2,500 in the provinces of Niassa, Sofala and Zambezia2. In Cabo Delgado, IDPs have fled to the districts of Mueda (29 per cent), Nangade (28 per cent), Pemba (21 per cent), Montepuez (14 per cent), and Metuge (3 per cent). The majority of IDPs (79 per cent) are hosted by local communities while others are in formal and informal IDP sites. 43 per cent of the IDPs are children of whom 384 are unaccompanied. Furthermore, Mozambique is also hit on an annual basis by tropical cyclones that causes frequent displacements and disruption of livelihoods. The most recent one, Eloise, forced 43,000 residents, mainly in the Sofala province, to flee to other areas within the country. However, the impact of the terrific Idai cyclone in March 2019 is still visible, with some 90,000 IDPs still residing in de facto camps throughout central Mozambique.