A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
From November 2014 until late January 2015,
Northern and Central parts of Mozambique experienced extensive rainfall which caused serious flooding in many regions. The most critical area affected was in the centre of the country, precisely in the Licungo River Basin (Zambezia province). Floods here reached historical levels (in some areas up to 12m height). On 12 January 2015, the Council of Ministers of Mozambique declared the institutional red alert for the Central and Northern parts of the country due to heavy rains recorded and consequent floods in large areas. Flooding affected communities, public and private telecommunications and energy infrastructures, especially in Zambezia and Nampula provinces. Land transportation was hindered, with many roads and bridges destroyed or completely flooded. The main national road N1 was cut multiple times, mainly in Mocuba and Gúruè districts. Many communities including those around Mopeia and Maganja da Costa were completely isolated and only accessibly by air. Electrical infrastructure and communication were severely impacted. In the North, damage to power-plants left the second largest city of the country, Nampula, without electricity for several weeks. Water supply systems were damaged in many areas making access to safe water difficult.
According to the National Disaster Management Institute (INGC), the heavy rains and floods affected about 177,645 people (37,090 families) and temporarily displaced about 44,000 people. The death toll due to floods, house collapse and lightning in the country has risen to 160 of which 134 were recorded in Zambézia province.
Furthermore, 10,860 houses were totally destroyed, 8,354 houses partially destroyed and 1,581 classrooms damaged. In Zambézia province, the floods affected 144,279 people (29,522 families), 11,641 houses have been totally, and partially destroyed. The floods have affected 110,602 hectares of several crops, of which 72,965 hectares were totally lost affecting 85,420 smallholders’ families. In the onset of the emergency, the displaced people were hosted in 49 accommodation centres such as schools and churches.
As cases of cholera gradually increased three main provinces were being affected: Tete, Nampula and Niassa provinces. On Thursday the 26 February 2015, cholera cases were reported in the flood affected Zambezia province. As of the 17 March 2015, 5 provinces had been affected by cholera. Cases began in Nampula Province in Cidade de Nampula. Other cases were later reported in Sofala district. The number of cases eventually reduced with most new cases being recorded in Cidade de Tete in Tete province and Cidade de Quelimane in Zambezia province.
In responses to the above situation, the Mozambican Red Cross (CVM) immediately deployed eight National Disaster Response Team (NDRT) members to assist affected provinces in needs assessment, emergency planning and responses. According to the needs assessment, a proposed plan of action targeting 3,000 households (15,000 beneficiaries) in Zambezia province only was discussed and agreed by CVM and its partners. Detailed assessments were conducted during the implementation of emergency responses and it was found that Nampula province was hardly hit by both floods and cholera and that further needs had to be included in the plan of action. As a result, a revised plan of action was published early April 2015 targeting 3,524 households (17,620 beneficiaries) in Zambezia and Nampula provinces. The operation focused on addressing the following areas:
(i) Emergency and recovery shelter and non-food items;
(ii) Water, sanitation and hygiene promotion;
(iii) Health and care;
(iv) Disaster risk reduction/disaster preparedness and capacity building.