Mozambique: Floods - Early Action Protocol summary


The IFRC Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) has approved a total allocation of CHF 249,327 from its Forecast based Action (FbA) mechanism for the Mozambique Red Cross Society. The approved amount consists of an immediate allocation of CHF 137, 089 for readiness and pre-positioning and CHF 112, 238 automatically allocated to implement early actions once the defined triggers are met.

The FbA by the DREF is a Forecast-based Financing funding mechanism managed by the DREF. Allocations for the FbA by the DREF are made from a separate financial component of the DREF (MDR00004) and do not affect the reserves of the DREF appeal code MDR00001. Unearmarked contributions to the FbA by the DREF are encouraged to guarantee enough funding is available for the Early Action Protocols being developed.


The high vulnerability to flooding in Mozambique is associated with its geographical location, downstream of nine major river basins on the south-eastern African continent. Floods, tropical cyclones, droughts and epidemics are phenomena that occur with some regularity in the country. Cyclical floods of different sizes occur annually in Mozambique. During the period 1980-2019, the country experienced at least 28 floods (INGC), causing considerable damage to several river basins in Mozambique. The floods in Mozambique have been caused by two factors: Depressions and tropical cyclones, as well as prolonged rains during the rainy season which increase the levels of the river basins and subsequent discharges downstream.


Floods are a phenomenon that happen regularly in the country. In the last 20 years Mozambique has launched a total of 8 DREFs to meet basic needs caused by the impact of flooding. A total of approximately one million people were affected in this period, and the Mozambique Red Cross has always been at the forefront responding to these calamities by helping the most disadvantaged and affected by the impact of these extreme events.

EAP Development

This EAP is focused on floods, which might occur anywhere in Mozambique from October to April (the rainy/cyclone season). The actions proposed will be activated on the basis of hydro-meteorological warnings indicating that the trigger level (water level correspondent to discharge of five-year return period at the river basin reference station) will be reached within 72 hours (3 days), which is the lead time within which the CVM can act in advance before a flood event reaches the districts and communities potentially at risk. All actions included in the EAP are based on this preparation time window. The hydro-meteorological forecast will be provided by the National Institute of Meteorology (INAM) and the National Directorate of Water Resources Management (DNGRH), with whom the FbF team has developed longstanding collaborations at the technical level, focusing on the provision of data, as well as providing forecasts in a timely manner.

This EAP seeks to achieve two objectives: first to ensure that the selected early actions are evidence-based and that they are effective in reducing the prioritized humanitarian impact of floods in Mozambique. Actions are proposed on the basis of sound risk information (Chapter 3), and reliable climate information that events of a certain magnitude are linked to high levels of impact. Secondly, the protocol describes how CVM selected and will organize the actions.