Mozambique: Flood Rehabilitation Final Report (Appeal no. 04/00)

Originally published


Appeal Nos. 01.44/2001 (Annual Appeal) and 04/2000 (Emergency Floods)
Appeal Targets: Annual Appeal 01.44/2000: CHF 2,284,000; Emergency Appeal 04/2000: CHF 38,655,040 (Fourth Revision 04/2000, 17 July 2000)

Period covered: January - December, 2000

Note: This Final Report presents a consolidation and summary of the programmes and the financial status of two related appeals: the Annual Appeal for Mozambique (01.44/2000) as well as the Emergency Floods Appeal (04/2000). The Botswana, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe components of Appeal 04/2000 will form a separate Final Report.

"At a Glance"

Appeal coverage for 01.44/2000: 183.4%

Appeal coverage for 04/2000: 28.3%

Related Appeals: N/A

Operational Developments:

Red Cross operations in Mozambique were transformed during the course of 2000, not only in their focus but in their scale, as a direct result of the international assistance provided to combat the massive flooding which struck the country in February and March. At the beginning of the year, the Federation's 2000-2001 appeal for the Country Assistance Strategy of the Mozambique Red Cross (Cruz Vermelha de Moçambique - CVM) outlined priority programmes which reflected those of the core areas of Strategy 2010: disaster response, disaster preparedness, health education and services, promotion of humanitarian values (specifically mines awareness), and institutional and resource development.

These programmes, however, had a sharply reduced operational focus on one district in each of the eleven provinces in Mozambique, to maximise the impact of this programming given the limited capacities of the CVM. But in February and March 2000 the National Society was forced to mobilise all its resources to combat disastrous flooding - the worst for fifty years - caused by torrential rains and the effects of Cyclones Connie and Eline in the three southern river basins along the Limpopo, Save and Buzi. The effects of the record rainfall and cyclonic downpours were exacerbated by the opening of sluice gates of dams up river in Botswana, Zimbabwe, Zambia, South Africa and Swaziland. Approximately 4.5 million people, 27% of Mozambique's population were affected by the flooding, with 700 deaths, almost a hundred missing and 544,000 displaced from their homes.

The International Federation launched an emergency appeal (04/2000) on 11 February to assist the Mozambique and Botswana Red Cross Societies help the flood victims, and this was revised and extended on 18 February, 25 February and 2 March as the situation deteriorated, finally extending also to Swaziland and Zimbabwe, although most operations focused on Mozambique which was the worst affected country. Participating National Societies also became operational in Mozambique, with the American, Danish, German, Spanish and British Red Cross Societies establishing direct relief interventions in support of the National Society.

The combined Red Cross relief efforts - which reached over 100,000 beneficiaries - made a major contribution to the alleviation of suffering of flood victims, but stretched the limits of the CVM and proved at times difficult to coordinate. A further revision of the Federation's emergency appeal for Mozambique on 10 April switched attention to the rehabilitation phase of the flood relief operation, but was not able to provide a detailed operational guide to rehabilitation activities because adequate information on the real needs of the communities in the flood-affected areas only became clear in the following months. A fourth revision of the Federation's 04/2000 appeal was therefore launched on 17 July, based on an extensive series of in-depth assessments in May and June by the CVM, Federation and PNS working in Mozambique.

Following the final distributions of 'reinstallation kits' to 10,000 families to help them re-establish new homes in late June and early July in six of the affected provinces of Mozambique, the focus of the International Federation and CVM's activities switched to the rehabilitation of local health, water and sanitation facilities affected by the flooding; and to increasing the future capacity of the most vulnerable communities nation-wide through community-based first aid and disaster preparedness and response programmes, anchored in the development of stronger National Society branches and district and provincial organizational structures.

The July revision of the 04/2000 emergency appeal for Mozambique took the total appealed for that country by the Federation in 2000 to CHF 38,655,040, and it also integrated programmes originally set out in the Country Assistance Strategy of the Mozambique Red Cross (Federation Appeal no. 01.44/2000). The July revised appeal therefore charted a cohesive, coherent and comprehensive programme strategy for the National Society, supported by the International Federation, for the following 18 months - although budgets reflected funding needs only until the end of 2000. It is this combined appeal to which this annual report relates.

Objectives, Achievements and Constraints

Disaster Response

At the beginning of the year, the CVM held barely any DPP stocks in the warehouses in Maputo. When the flooding began in February, donations poured in of all kinds from domestic and international donor organisations and individuals.

From the earliest days of the crisis, CVM volunteers were involved in rescue and relief activities, risk warning, provision of first aid (43,322 beneficiaries), health education (34,237 beneficiaries), chlorination of water (68,247 beneficiaries), building of latrines, psycho-social support and fund-raising.

Supported by the International Federation's delegation in Maputo, the National Society made emergency relief distributions to 20,242 families in 100 separate distributions in the southern provinces (Maputo city, Maputo province, Gaza and Inhambane); and from Beira (supported by the British Red Cross) relief distributions to 2,500 families in 25 distributions in the central provinces.

In distributions which began in May, the Federation and CVM disbursed reinstallation kits to 10,062 families at 70 different distribution points. These "family reinstallation kits" included one tarpaulin, one kitchen set, two blankets, 12 bars of soap, two kangas/capulanas, construction wire and nails, two mosquito nets, two buckets with lids, one machete, one axe, one hoe, and one 25-litre jerrycan. In total, the Federation/CVM supplied relief items to 32,804 families (approximately 164,000 people) in 195 separate distributions. The total number of Red Cross provided items in the relief phase of the operation were as follows:

Toilet Soap
Family Tents
Jerry Cans
BP5 biscuits
Hygiene Kits
Used Clothes
130 mt
5,000 kg
10,000 rolls
Washing Soap
Chlorine Tablets
588,000 tablets
Plastic Sheeting
5,600 rolls
Kitchen Sets
Mosquito Nets
Seed Kits


  • The inaccessibility of many areas of intervention, rendering both the transport costs and the length of time required to complete distributions much higher than usual.
  • Insufficient number of field vehicles and delays in their arrival complicated the operation, although eventually distributions were completed satisfactorily.
  • Storage facilities in the field posed a big problem, with even CVM provincial offices not having warehouses to store relief items. Where alternate storage facilities could not be located, large tents which we had in stock were used.
  • It was important that for some items, particularly mosquito nets, demonstrations were given to beneficiaries on their correct use.
  • There was a shortage of Red Cross identification attire, e.g., printed T-shirts, bibs, caps, etc. for volunteers.
  • Careful coordination needed to take place with local authorities to minimise bureaucratic delays which were sometimes imposed.

Disaster Preparedness

At the beginning of 2000 CVM disaster preparedness was under the responsibility of a single officer in the institutional development department. No disaster preparedness or disaster management policy, strategy or designated human resources within the National Society existed beyond this individual, and although the performance of the CVM in response to the floods was widely recognized to have been extremely important and effective, the National Society recognized that a much more systematized and coherent DP and DM capability needed to be developed.

As a result, following the end of the intensive relief phase of the flood operation, the second half of 2000 was spent in beginning to lay the foundations of a comprehensive DP capacity within the CVM. The National Society's strategic review in August-September 2000 reaffirmed Disaster Preparedness as a major strategic priority of the CVM. As a result, the National Society's management agreed to enlarge the DP department in CVM's headquarters and propose that specific DP technicians be employed in each of the 11 provinces. A first draft of a National Society DP policy was produced, and work continued on DP training modules which had been pioneered in a DP workshop with the participation of volunteers from 11 branches in July in Maputo. This resulted in a basic DP training session between 18-22 December in Catembe district, where 25 volunteers and staff of Maputo City Province tested the educational methodology ahead of planned DP zonal workshops in January 2001.

Aware of the extremely dangerous water level throughout many parts of the country and the high likelihood of renewed flooding during the 2001 rainy season, the CVM and Federation drafted an additional DP Contingency Plan which was presented to PNS donors during the Mozambique Partnership Meeting in Maputo in October. This plan was in addition to the DP stocks included in the 04/2000 (Fourth Revision) Emergency Appeal of 17 July (which included 1,000 family kits) and intended to procure an additional 3,000 basic family kits, each comprising one tent, two blankets, two Jerry cans, two buckets, two impregnated mosquito nets, one kitchen set, two kits of clothes and 1½ kg of soap. Following confirmation of sufficient donor support, procurements began in late 2000 with the intention that stocks be distributed nationwide, though particular attention was paid to the central provinces of Sofala, Manica, Inhambane and Zambezia.

Contingency stocks were held at a provincial level if they could not be transported to vulnerable districts due to warehousing or security considerations. Whilst procurements by year-end were well advanced for all items for the planned 4,000 family kits, the following relief stocks had been delivered by 31 December:

Jerry cans
Clean Up kits
Kitchen set
Fishing sets
Maputo Prov.

Additionally, procurements were proceeding as part of the DP plan for five landcruisers, telecommunications equipment for provincial offices (HF/VHF radios and satellite phones) and six boats. More could have been accomplished in the DP sector had there not been a gap of three-and-a-half months between the missions of the Federation's DP delegates. The arrival of a new delegate in November for at least one year will, however, create new impetus to these activities.

The following table details the objectives established in the DP portion of both appeals (01.44/2000 and 04/2000) and the corresponding achievements.

Mozambique Country Assistance Strategy 01.44/2000
Objective Achievement Comments Proposal for 2001
1. To establish a CVM policy and strategic plan on disasters. Following the experience of the flood disaster in the first half of 2000, the CVM established DP as a core activity, and produced initial draft DP policy and training modules, which were nearing completion at year-end. Most attention was focused on the actual flood relief operation. At the end of 2000 a detailed review of national laws and relevant regulations was begun. To continue this process in order to finalise all relevant policy and planning documents and ensure ownership through the involvement of all parts of the CVM structure.
2. To assess and upgrade MRCS human and material resources throughout the country In October consultations began with all provincial branches to get updated information on DP provincial capacity. Progress was slow, however, at year end only Zambezia Province had delivered an inventory. Use the planned Basic DP Workshops in the three zones in January 2001 to obtain this information and complete CVM's contingency plans.
3. To increase knowledge and ability to work on issues related to disaster preparedness and response The floods operation was a huge learning opportunity for National Society staff and systems which showed many strengths and weaknesses of CVM's DP and Disaster Management capability. Training modules, building on these experiences, were developed and tested in July and December 2000. 2001 disaster response activities of the CVM showed considerable DM progress had been achieved at HQ level. This must now be replicated at provincial and district levels. All DP documents will be translated into Portuguese to facilitate this. Training processes will be extended and expanded to professionalise further the volunteers and staff working in disaster issues.
4. To establish disaster management systems The DP/DM structure drafted and agreed with the CVM's management is awaiting approval by its Executive Council. The selection and employment of DP technicians at HQ and Provincial level will begin as soon as the structure is approved. This would be the first task to begin in 2001.
Emergency Appeal No.04/2000
Objective Achievement Comments Proposal for 2001
1. Clarify CVM's specific roles and responsibilities within the overall Mozambique Disaster Preparedness and Response plan After consultation with the National Society/Federation, in December 2000 the INGC (National Governmental Institute for Disaster Management) published its Contingency Plan which clearly identified the CVM's role and responsibilities. The Government's Council of Ministers in Feb. 2001 recognized the vital role of the Red Cross. Both the HQ and provincial branches were involved in advising and giving information to INGC. Continue the good relations with the INGC and establish further agreements to develop further their strategic cooperation.
2. Develop a CVM emergency response plan, linked to the official Mozambique Early Warning System The CVM drafted with Federation support a Contingency Plan in total concordance with the Official National Plan. This was shared and accepted by the INGC. The CVM has been involved in all multi-disciplinary assessments made for the government. It is involved in all information exchange fora with the govt, UN system and NGOs. More detailed work needs to be done at provincial level as only Zambezia province has presented a fully-fledged Contingency Plan.
3. Construct 32 CVM minimal storage centres at provincial and/or district branch level Four storage facilities in Gaza province were completed. The 2001 flood disasters stressed the urgent need to have these minimal storage centres completed. Complete the planned construction of the other 28 office/storage facilities.
4. Pre-position emergency supplies and CVM rescue equipment at district and branch level The plan for 1,000 family kits was made and accomplished as set out above. The October revision of this objective quadrupled the planned figures and funds were successively raised. Distributions of the additional 3,000 family kits will be completed in the first quarter of 2001.
5. Develop a boat programme to instruct volunteers in water safety, boat rescue and maintenance Basic training was only accomplished in Gaza province. Training plans for other provinces were delayed and only ad hoc training was completed. A more developed pilot Water Rescue Programme based in Quelimane and Maputo will be run.
6. Provide DPP and DR training for volunteers (including needs assessment, risk mapping, and dissemination of Red Cross/Red Crescent Movement principles) Training workshops to test and validate the methodological process were held in Maputo in July and December. The results were very positive and led to the design of a curricula for basic DP zonal/regional workshop planned in 2001. To expand the training process for all human resources of the CVM, because the experience demonstrated that in disaster case all people is involved directly and indirectly in the relief operation.

Humanitarian Values

The public relations work of the CVM and the Federation during the disaster greatly improved the awareness amongst the Mozambique public of the activities and motives of the Red Cross. Both the CVM's highly successful 'Solidarity Campaign' - which led the national fund-raising efforts - and the wide publicity given to the extensive international support to flood victims through the Federation and PNS cemented the idea of humanitarian assistance with the Red Cross organisation The National Society was widely acclaimed for its work, being recognised by the Mozambican government and winning a prestigious 'Personality of the Year' award from a national daily newspaper.

Unfortunately the National Society's mines-awareness programmes suffered from the CVM's national and provincial resources being focused on disaster relief. Activities by the CVM using money provided in earlier years by the Swedish Red Cross were extremely limited, and a proposal for an additional programme supported by the Canadian Red Cross was not finalised during the year.

Health and Care

Health Programmes

The impact of the floods in February-March changed many planned nation-wide development health activities into emergency-focused health activities in the six provinces most affected by the disaster. Mozambique Red Cross volunteers were involved in rescue and relief, provision of first aid, health education, water chlorination and the building of latrines. Meanwhile, cholera continued to emerge regularly during the year, with a total of 16,028 reported cases and 216 reported deaths.

The challenges imposed by the flood response in the health area, the growing threat of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique and the commitments made by the CVM at the Pan-African Conference in Ougadougou all led to the placing of community-based health (ARCHI) and HIV/AIDS as central strategic priorities for the National Society during their strategic review in mid-2000. In the organisational review and change process which followed the mid-year strategic analysis, and which at the end of 2000 still awaited CVM Executive Council approval, the National Society plan to establish an independent and expanded HIV/AIDS department, separate from the Health department, which itself will be reinforced. HIV/AIDS provincial technicians will also be employed in 2001 to join the health technicians already in place. This will support the National Society's 'scaling up' activities in the African Red Cross and Red Crescent Health Initiative 2010 (ARCHI) and HIV/AIDS programmes.

Specific programme objectives, achievements and constraints in the health programmes in 2000 were as follows:

Mozambique Country Assistance Strategy 01.44/2000
To improve the health of the more vulnerable communities by promoting Community Based First Aid in priority districts identified by the CVM.
  • 1,713,487 reported individuals were assisted in 33 districts.
  • 338,656 reported individuals were benefited in health education.
  • 188,011 reported individuals benefited from 24,615 home visits.
  • 853 volunteers were trained and retrained in CBFA.
  • 6 local CVM committees have been formed in 4 provinces.
  • 6 baseline surveys (PRA) have been undertaken in 4 districts.
  • 4 health sessions have been held with community members in 4 districts.
  • 4000 first aid manuals, 10000 cholera pamphlets and 5000 malaria pamphlets were distributed.
  • 437 medical kits were purchased and distributed to 73 First Aid Posts.
  • Health Department participated in 5 Regional Delegation meetings.
  • The floods emergency operation necessitated a huge extra burden on health services, straining total capacity against the planned activities.
  • Overload of work due to the floods, and a lack of CVM health personnel at both HQ and provincial levels, were the principal problems during the year.
  • Training of volunteers had to include training in emergency situations for the response to the floods, cholera, malaria and DPP.
  • Due to the floods the majority of first aid activities were carried out in 58 First Aid Posts in accommodation centres in five provinces.
To collaborate in the promotion of preventive measures and long term reduction of the impact of HIV/AIDS.
  • The CVM took a full part in the finalisation of the Southern Africa HIV/AIDS regional strategy, which was launched with an appeal in July 2000.
  • 2,523 education sessions on HIV/AIDS/STD were performed in and out of schools for 54,595 students.
  • 279 theatre sessions were held, benefiting 31,501 people.
  • 3,348 condoms were distributed.
  • One workshop for 42 teachers and 34 students took place in Maputo city.
  • 16 debates were carried out for 2,084 young people.
  • 79 sick people were visited in Manica province.
  • Two anti-AIDS groups were supported with educational materials.
  • Monthly coordination meetings with other NGOs took place.
  • One AIDS technician went to the Int. Conf. on HIV/AIDS in Durban.
  • The CVM did not address itself fully to the importance of the HIV/AIDS threat until the mid-year strategic review placed the subject at the core of its future activities.
  • Those activities which did take place were therefore somewhat ad hoc, unfocused and unmeasured in terms of impact.
  • Work began but was not completed on an integrated and comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategic plan for the CVM.
  • Insufficient resources at all levels within the National Society reduced the capacity of the CVM to conduct wide-ranging activities.
  • Financial resources to the CVM's HIV/AIDS activities from the Federation's regional appeal were disappointingly small. In-country PNS support did not begin in 2000.
Emergency Appeal No.04/2000
To inform, educate and provide treatment to cholera affected or threatened people.
  • Through door-to-door visits 914,730 people in six provinces were educated on the correct use of latrines and water treatment.
  • 468,460 people benefited from water chlorination activities (see below).
  • 210 volunteers were trained in 6 provinces.
  • 20 oral rehydration posts were opened in the accommodation centres.
  • 10 cholera kits were divided and distributed to six provinces.
  • 2,000 pamphlets were printed and distributed to the six provinces where cholera was evident.
  • Participation in national and provincial coordination meetings on cholera.
  • Initial delays in receiving cholera-related medicaments and materials in the emergency phase of the floods.
To rehabilitate or reconstruct 17 Type III and 3 Type II government health centre facilities
  • Construction and rehabilitation projects in Gaza province (German Red Cross) are near completion; and some of those in Maputo city (Spanish Red Cross) and Inhambane (Danish and Italian RC) are well advanced. Projects in Sofala, Manica and Tete will be taken on by the Federation and delegates arrived in November/December to begin re-assessments and revise POAs. However, planned bilateral activities in Maputo province (American Red Cross) and the four Northern provinces (Norwegian Red Cross) have not begun.
  • Funding and delegate support for activities in the central provinces was only received in the final quarter, delaying Federation implementation.
  • Implementation of reconstruction projects by all bilateral PNS were slow because of the difficulties in construction work in Mozambique and the heavy bureacratic approval process with the relevant authorities.
  • Financial and delegate constraints also constrained PNS rehabilitation project implementation.
To provide basic medical equipment and essential drugs for health centres.
  • This objective will only be achieved once rehabilitation projects are completed in 2001.
See above.
To construct, reconstruct or repair 35 CVM first aid posts for community outreach.
  • See above on rehabilitation and reconstruction of health centres.
See above.

Water and Sanitation

The original CAS 2000 objective in Mozambique 'To provide drinking water facilities and essential basic sanitation in the identified target districts to reduce the level of transmittable diseases related to poor water and sanitation facilities' was the over-arching objective to the extensive water and sanitation interventions in 2000 as a result of the flood disaster. The Federation also took on the technical coordination of all Red Cross watsan initiatives in Mozambique in support of the CVM, as well as running its own programme in the southern province of Gaza.

General Water and Sanitation Coordination


  • To facilitate coordination of Red Cross water and sanitation field activities; sharing of ideas and solutions to problems; and, where applicable, resources.

  • Weekly and then bi-weekly WatSan Coordination Meetings for WatSan Delegates from PNS, CVM, and the Federation. PNSs running water and sanitation programmes in Mozambique as a result of the floods included German RC, Danish RC, Spanish RC, American RC and Italian RC.

  • 20 WatSan coordination meetings took place between March 27 and December 8, 2000.
  • Exchange of project implementation ideas, experiences, problem solutions and recommendations.
  • Minutes were prepared and distributed to all attendees and to Red Cross headquarters in Geneva, Harare, Madrid, Bonn and Washington.
  • Combined representation of Red Cross at UNICEF/Mozambique National Dept. of Water Coordination meetings.
  • Identification and recommendation of WatSan related suppliers and contractors.

  • Difficulty in attendance by PNS/CVM participants due to obligations in the field, especially those outside of Maputo Province.

Measures Taken to Overcome Constraints
  • Weekly meeting schedule reduced to biweekly as flood situation stabilized.
  • Federation WatSan Coordinator substituted for the absence of CVM National WatSan Coordinator.

Initial Flood 2000 Water & Sanitation Relief Response


  • To provide in the immediate and short-term safe water, sanitation and hygiene promotion facilities to prevent death and disease amongst populations made vulnerable due to the flood events.

  • Repair and disinfection of water points in temporary accommodation centres (TACs).
  • Construct emergency latrines in TACs.
  • Mobilize CVM volunteers to provide hygiene promotion in the TACs.

  • Provision of 6 tapstands, 1 submersible pump and 3 generators, and repair of water mains and storage tanks in Maputo in collaboration with Aguas de Mozambique.
  • Construction of 15 latrines for 3,500 persons displaced in Maputo city.
  • Construction of 100 latrines, restoration of 6 Afridev handpumps, establishment of a latrine maintenance programme, chlorine treatment of 3 shallow wells in Chiaquelane TAC Centre.

  • Lack of communication between field and headquarters.
  • Transportation difficulties for necessary equipment and supplies due mainly to poor road conditions as a result of the flood.

Measures Taken to Overcome Constraints
  • Support developed among relief agencies on the ground to overcome as much as possible the lack of communication and transportation means.

Southern Gaza Rehabilitation/ ReconstructionWatSan Project

Primary Objectives

  • Re-establishment of basic water and sanitation facilities for peri-urban and rural communities affected by floods.
  • Provision of health education/awareness raising campaign among vulnerable groups.
  • Assist community-based initiatives in improving environmental health conditions.
  • Provision of vector control initiatives to reduce threat or incidence of diseases. appeal nos. 01.44/2000 (Annual Appeal) and 04/2000 (Emergency Floods); Mozambique final report.

Secondary Objectives
  • In collaboration with CVM/Government bodies ensure effective targeting of those in most need.
  • Strengthen collaboration between Government bodies and CVM staff and volunteer network.
  • Ensure effective integration between CVM health initiatives and WatSan interventions.
  • Facilitate further capacity building among CVM staff and volunteers.

Immediate Objectives, Activities and Indicators Analysis
Objectives: Activities Planned: Actual Activities: Indicators:
Project Set-Up Lease/furnish office Office fully operational. Office space identified.
Recruit staff All 12 staff members recruited. Number of staff hired.
Procure Vehicles All 3 vehicles in use. Number of vehicle in use.
Re-establishment of WatSan Facilities Survey/Targeting 50 sites identified for water point reconstruction.
25 sites identified for communal latrine construction.
5 communities/ bairros identified for construction of 2,000 family latrines.
Number of new water points and of rehabilitation water points identified.
Geophysical Survey 50 sites with alternatives surveyed. Number of sites selected.
Procurement/Supply 75 handpumps with spare kits procured. Number of handpumps/spare parts/construction material procured.
Tendering Contractors for borehole drilling and latrine slab construction selected and contracted. Contractors selected and comparative bid analysis performed.
Construct new water points 47 new water points constructed. Number of new water points in operation.
Rehabilitate water points 71 aprons and 41 handpumps rehabilitated. Number of rehabilitated water points in operation.
Construct communal latrines 25 communal latrines constructed. Number of communal latrines in operation.
Construct family latrines 552 family latrines constructed. Number of family latrines in operation.
Train water maintenance group 30 water maintenance groups trained. Number of water maintenance groups trained.
Health Education Training 20 volunteers selected and trained Number of CVM volunteered trained.
Deployment 12 deployed for family latrine construction Number of CVM volunteers deployed.
Environmental Health/ Vector Control Procurement/ Training Not implemented as not necessary. Number of CVM volunteers trained.
Deployment Not implemented as not necessary Number of CVM volunteers deployed.
MRCS Capacity Building Training and joint MRCS/IFRC reviews. Six CVM staff members trained. Number of CVM staff trained and involved in reviews.


Planned Activity: Actual Activity:
% of Target
Geophysical Survey As planned 58 boreholes surveyed with alternative sites
Borehole drilling As planned 58 boreholes drilled.
Installation of New handpumps Less than planned due to negative boreholes (high salinity)
Construction of new aprons Less Construction of new aprons boreholes (high salinity)
Rehabilitation/ reconstruction of aprons. Exceeded planned figure due to higher demand in the field.
Rehabilitation of handpumps only Exceeded planned figure due to higher demand in the field and ongoing into 2001.
New community water maintenance groups Ongoing into 2001
Re-established community water maintenance groups Ongoing into 2001
Protection of 25 shallow wells Ongoing into 2001
Construction of communal latrines Exceeded planned figure due to higher demand in the field.
Construction of family latrines Ongoing into 2001


  • High demand for resources within project area due to presence of other operating agencies all in response to the flood situation.
  • Difficulty in recruiting a health officer to carry out the volunteer training and deployment.
  • Delay in delivery of concrete latrine slabs because of enormous demand in response to flood and small number of suppliers in the country.
  • Delay in water maintenance group training due to transfer of seconded training personnel and under-capacity of Provincial Dept. of Public Works and Housing to undertake the training.
  • Some resettlement areas did not have local materials for family latrine superstructure construction.
  • Poor field communication due to lack of VHF/HF radios and also unreliable or lack of in-country mobile phone network.

Measures Taken to Overcome Constraints
  • CVM personnel rearranged to provide health education/hygiene promotion training to volunteers.
  • Provided higher then usual incentives to attract and retain CVM volunteer candidates.
  • Re-budgeted and trucked in family latrine superstructure materials to resettlement areas.

Institutional and Resource Development

As described above, the flood disaster relief and rehabilitation operations provided important insights into the institutional strengths and weaknesses of the Mozambique Red Cross. Although specific institutional development objectives had not been part of the Country Assistance Strategy 2000, the Federation delegation and CVM took the opportunity of this learning to launch a fundamental review of the National Society's programme strategy and structure. From August 2000 until the end of the year, therefore, this exercise was conducted which allowed the CVM to refocus its strategy, clearly set out its core operating costs, and align its new strategy with a new organisational structure at both national headquarters and provincial levels.

One objective of the Resource Development programme was substantially achieved in 2000. As a result of its operations during the floods, and the intense level of publicity and profile raised by its activities on behalf of vulnerable people during this time, the CVM's external position became considerably stronger (see above - Humanitarian Values). The CVM's 'Solidarity Campaign' launched for flood victims raised over US$200,000, forging important new linkages with commercial and individual donors. The other objectives of the resource development strategy in CAS 2000 were - however - negatively impacted by the flood relief and rehabilitation operation. A financial resource development strategy and plan was not completed by year-end, and revenue generating projects for more sustainable National Society funding had not been identified. Staff within the National Society responsible for RD activities were over-extended with flood-related and other work, and the new strategic review highlighted the need for trained CVM personnel to work single-mindedly and consistently on this programme. These activities will be a main focus of activities for the CVM in 2001.

Development of the CVM's financial systems were also handicapped by the lengthy delay in receiving the final results of the 1999 external national and provincial audit from PriceWaterhouseCoopers. Nevertheless, the Federation continued to provide training and support through a finance development delegate to the CVM's finance department in headquarters and to six provincial branches during the course of the year.

Regional Cooperation

There was close regional cooperation throughout 2000. Relief and Water and Sanitation delegates from the Federation's RD Harare assisted the flood relief operation and delegates from regional National Societies also took part in CVM programmes. Close integration of regional health programming (ARCHI and HIV/AIDS) took place, and towards the end of the year, plans were drawn up for the information services support to the CVM as part of the southern Africa LISN project managed from Harare.

Coordination and Management

The International Federation's operational and development support for the CVM expanded dramatically in 2000 as a result of the flooding and the enormous operational demands made on the National Society as a result. The Federation's delegation of two expatriate delegates in January increased to 15 as the focus of its activities shifted from the institutional and resource development outlined in the Country Assistance Strategy appeal document 2000 to assistance with the provision of relief and the coordination of a wide range of operational support from the International Red Cross / Red Crescent Movement as set out in successive revisions of Emergency Appeal no. 04/2000.

National Society representatives from the Norwegian and Icelandic Red Cross were already present in Mozambique when the floods began, but in response to the massive international relief response the American, Danish, German and Spanish Red Cross Societies established delegations to implement relief programmes in Maputo city and the provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane. On behalf of the International Federation, the British Red Cross also established a sub-delegation in Sofala, reinforcing the main delegation in the capital, Maputo.

The Federation delegation in Mozambique played the leading role in advising and supporting the CVM throughout this time of profound operational strain followed by significant organisational change. From early in the flood relief operation the Federation delegation had aligned its own role in conformity with the new direction of the International Federation: namely, to concentrate its activities on providing the strategic framework for the Movement's external support to the National Society; coordinating, facilitating and supporting this assistance; and implementing programmes itself only when it was best placed to do so. This proved to be a considerable challenge, given the wide range of PNS programming and the presence of six PNS implementing delegations or country representatives in Mozambique.

The Federation delegation facilitated and led, with the MRCS, the country-wide assessments by the Red Cross Movement, the formation and drafting of the revised Emergency Appeals and the Country Assistance Strategy Appeal 2001-2002. It established and ran, with the MRCS, coordination fora at the Head of Delegation and technical specialisation (water and sanitation, health) levels; set with the National Society a series of minimum standards in the programme management and training spheres; and ensured that programme delivery standards were uniform and consistent in their application and scope.

The Federation delegation also provided a wide range of services to PNS delegations, including office accommodation and administrative support; telecommunications; transportation, warehousing and other logistical support; technical advice and consultancy services in the areas of health, water and sanitation and institutional development; and general advice and management support.

At the request and with the support of the British, Canadian, Austrian and Netherlands Red Cross, the Federation delegation also established a programme implementation structure in the central provinces of Sofala, Manica and Tete to carry out the programming outlined in the appeal beginning in November 2000.


2000 proved to be a profoundly challenging but successful year for the CVM and the Federation in Mozambique. The scale of the flood disaster in Mozambique and its world-wide profile led to a large number of PNS beginning to implement bilateral programmes with the CVM. The National Society faced the enormous challenge of adapting to this changed situation and responding adequately to multiple partners simultaneously, and the Federation delegation also faced the new challenge of coordinating and facilitating these wide-ranging inputs in ways which supported the CVM, ensured quality programming and effective planning and implementation, added real value to the collective Red Cross operations, and provided value for money.

By the end of 2000, six bilateral PNS delegations continued to be working with the CVM under the coordinating lead of the International Federation in an extremely harmonious and constructive way.

It is clear that the rehabilitation plan published in the July revised appeal (04/2000) was wildly over-optimistic at the potential progress that could be made in the last six months of 2000. Although the revised appeal clearly set out a programmatic strategy for the following years - a strategy which was later confirmed by the CVM's strategic review to be the correct direction - the capabilities of the CVM to establish this programming, even with intense Federation and PNS support, were insufficient.

The rehabilitation and development programme delays were also due to the ambitious programme of strategic and institutional reform which took up the latter half of 2000 which was required because of the limitations exposed by the flood relief operation and the rehabilitation and development assessments and plans. At the end of the year, however, once CVM's governing board approve the proposed changes, the CVM will have expanded its capacity and be well placed to sustain scaled up programming in the key areas of community health (ARCHI), HIV/AIDS, and Disaster Preparedness and Response.

The remaining rehabilitation and development programming in the target districts countrywide will continue in 2001 and have been completely harmonised with the CAS 2001 plan and budgets. All programming not covered by existing pledges is included in the CAS 2001 plan, and the whole will mean that the CVM, Federation and PNS complete a far-reaching plan of action which aims to consolidate and extend the National Society's reach and community impact, and which empowers the CVM for the many challenges which lie ahead in the health and disaster preparedness and response areas.

For further details please contact: Richard Hunlede, Phone : 41 22 730-4314; Fax: 41 22 733 03 95; email:

All International Federation Operations seek to adhere to the Code of Conduct and are committed to the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response (SPHERE Project) in delivering assistance to the most vulnerable.

For further information concerning Federation operations in this or other countries, please access the Federation website at

Bekele Geleta
Africa Department

Peter Rees-Gildea
Head a.i.
Relationship Management Department

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