Mozambique Appeal No. 01.18/2003 Programme Update No. 1

Originally published


Appeal Target: CHF 806,035
Period covered: January to May 2003
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In Brief

Appeal coverage: 69.7 %; See attached Contributions List for details or see the Federation's website.

Outstanding needs: CHF 244,631

Related Emergency or Annual Appeals: Food Security and Integrated Community Care (Emergency Appeal 15/2003)

Programme Summary: The Mozambique Red Cross Society (MRCS) responded to localised flooding caused by the aftermath of cyclone Japhet; and, damage caused by tropical storm Delfina in three of the country's provinces. MzRC is recognised for their efforts with assisting Mozambique's vulnerable communities and saving lives during times of disasters. The National Society continues to put organisational structures into place, while MzRC volunteers contribute to combating the spread of diseases such as cholera and malaria.

Additionally, long term programming such as the Society's Water and Sanitation programme are having a demonstrable impact on communities, such as the increasing attendance by girls at school because of the reduction in time needed for fetching water from places that are far from home. MzRC has learned from its experiences during past disasters, improving the Society's capacity for disaster management. The level of damage caused by cyclone Japhet was mitigated because affected communities were prepared to cope with the disasters, through early warning awareness sessions conducted by MzRC volunteers and staff in the provinces.

Operational developments

Once again Mozambique was not been spared from what now seems like recurring annual disasters. In January, heavy rains caused by tropical storm Delfina affected over 280,000 people, in three provinces. The rains left 51 people dead, and destroyed over 50,000 houses, plus some of the area's roads and water sources. During the first week of March, tropical storm Japhet hit the two provinces of Sofala and Inhamamne damaging the area's infrastructure, including homes and crops, and affecting some 15,000 people. Mozambique

The drought that began in 2001, continues to seriously affect eight provinces, and some 655,000 people. The situation has been exacerbated by the prevalence of cholera in seven of the eight affected provinces. According to reports from the Ministry of Health (MoH), as of 18 March, 5,000 cases of cholera and 47 deaths were registered. The Mozambique Red Cross Society (MzRC), launched a national appeal for USD 108,627 seeking support for the Society's relief efforts in regard to the various emergencies that arose.

The Federation's regional Organizational Development (OD) Programme, supports the MzRC with capacity building activities such as; the development of OD tools tailored to the needs of the National Society, branch development, volunteer management and financial management. As a result the Society's finance system has been reinforced, and allowing MzRC to efficiently report on the Society's emergency and development activities.

Health and care

Overall Goal: A sustainable improvement in the general health of the targeted vulnerable communities through the provision of community based health and care interventions in line with ARCHI 2010.

Programme Objective: The Federation supports MzRC capacity to implement community-based health and care programmes including water and sanitation programming, there by improving the general health situation in targeted communities and increasing the communities coping capacity in disaster situations.


Over the past 20 years MzRC has been involved in implementing community based health projects aimed at supporting vulnerable communities, to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with common health problems. The Society has gained valuable experiences in the area of community based health programming and implementation. Through its programmes, the MzRC has gained respect and visibility throughout the country as being a well-known provider of health care services. The aim of the MzRC health programme is to complement the Ministry of Health (MoH) efforts in the provision of basic health care and disease prevention in rural and suburban areas.

During the first quarter of 2003, MzRC experienced disasters ranging from drought, cyclones and cholera epidemics. The effects of drought in the country differs form region to region with most of southern regions of Mozambique being more severely affected than parts of the central region. As a result of the current dry spell, some 1,475,557 affected people in Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane, Sofala, Manica, and Tete provinces are already receiving emergency food assistance through the World Food Programme (WFP).

The nutritional situation of children less than five years old is poor. The level of malnourished children in some districts has been found to be over 15%. This figure is a mean value based on statistics from the MoH and UNICEF, and an assessment conducted in seven of the affected provinces (Sofala, Manica, Tete, Zambezia, Inhambane, Gaza, and Maputo Province). As the level of chronic malnutrition is normally high, these figures cannot be solely attributed to the drought.

During the first quarter of 2003, MzRC volunteers were very active in the areas of disaster mitigation and disaster response. There were some 1,209,201 people from the northern and central parts of the country affected by the Cyclone Delphina in January, and Cyclone Japhet, in February respectively. Volunteers also participated in the Cholera campaigns that were organised by the MoH.

Poor sanitation and hygiene in cyclone affected provinces, led to an increase in the number of cases of diarrhoea aggravating an already existing high rate of malnutrition. Malaria morbidity and mortality is high despite intensive efforts to provide hygiene education and promote the use of mosquito nets. The cholera epidemic is still prevalent in eight provinces, with 8,195 registered cases, and 70 deaths, as of 21 April. The average death rate is 0.9%. (Statistics provided by MoH, MzRC from 2003.)

Achievements against Expected Results

Objective: The capacity of the MzRC to design and implement community-based care projects in one Province (Not supported by any PNS) will be strengthened.

60 volunteers will be trained about ARCHI health activities and tools, thereby improving the ability of the Provincial branch to implement its health related activities.

326 volunteers were trained in Community Based Health Care (CBHC) and Community Based First Aid (CBFA). Trained volunteers were deployed in response to the various health needs. 146 volunteers were also trained in response to the cholera outbreak in eight provinces, helping to reduce the mortality rate to 0.9%. Five First Aid posts were established in tents to cope with the emergency situations.

The health awareness among the population of the target province is increased though health promotion, disease prevention and First Aid activities in line with ARCHI 2010.

The 326 volunteers who are working with the community, at the First Aid posts are knowledgeable in supplementary feeding and nutritional surveillance. Twenty mothers from the community were trained about how to prepare supplementary feeding, hygiene information, and the importance of having children immunised. 1,877 malnutrition cases were referred to the Health Centre, and 29,476 people benefited from First Aid and treatment of common minor ailments. During the emergency response to the two cyclones, 440,313 people received First Aid assistance from MzRC volunteers. Over the reporting period, some 7 ,801 malaria cases were treated at the First Aid posts.

Two Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) training sessions will be conducted together with two Health technicians.

One detailed PRA assessment was carried out in one district.

40 medical kits, 60 First Aid bags and 20 balances for children will be purchased and distributed to improve the Provincial Red Cross branches ability to provide immediate first aid.

15 medical kits, 60 First Aid bags, 20,000 tablets and 60 insecticide kits for mosquitoes were purchased and distributed.

Monitoring of the nutritional status in children less that five years at First Aid posts will be conducted.

The Health centre attended to some 180 cases of malnutrition in children under five, and over 20 mothers were trained about how to prepare supplementary feeding, and taught hygiene and children immunisation.


The MzRC health programme's community based approach has proven to be quite successful, especially CBFA which empowered communities to deal with health problems which arose following cyclone Japhet and tropical storm Delfina. By improving hygiene among the communities, and practicing community based first aid, including treating minor illnesses, morbidity and mortality rates associated with common health problems were reduced.


Lack of funding for the regional health programme, posed an obstacle to the Federation to provide technical support to the MzRC during the cyclones disasters and cholera outbreaks.


MzRC works together with a number of partners such as UNICEF and the MoH with activities related to malaria, nutrition and cholera response.

Water and Sanitation

Water and Sanitation (Wat-San) activities were concentrated on Nampula province, where last year's activities such as, borehole drilling and further construction of latrines remained to be completed.

The regional Wat-San programme continued to support planned MzRC Wat-San activities while also attending to the needs in Cabo Delgado, Tete and Nampula.

Achievements against Expected Results

Objective: Provision of sustainable water and sanitation services at national society and beneficiary community levels with the extra capacity to respond to emergencies

Beneficiaries trained in planning and implementation of water and sanitation activities with linkages to health and HIV/AIDS programme.

MzRC Wat-San activities in Nampula and Cabo Delgade are estimated to have benefited some 10,730 people, through community based activities and consultations. Final site identification of ten water points has been done and beneficiaries are assisting with completing 288 latrines. Beneficiaries are responsible for operating and maintaining the latrines and water points, and when possible contribute funds. In some areas beneficiaries have put in place committees that are trained in the operation and maintenance of water point and latrines.

All community based training activities were postponed due to delays in construction activities caused by the heavy rains. Nevertheless last year's trained volunteers were used to help with increasing hygiene and sanitation awareness including giving basic messages on HIV/AIDS.

Red Cross branches become catalyst for water ad sanitation activities in the national societies.

MzRC has a well set up provincial and district structures were Wat-San activities have a sound base for proper implementation and management. The branches are involved in the activities during the assessment phase and assist with project monitoring during drilling and rehabilitation work. Branches also sponsor health/hygiene promotion activities.

Increased technical and managerial capacity of the Society in water and sanitation.

The MzRC Wat-San team and zone technicians are able to coordinate and adequately deal with the numerous requirements of the Federation and bilateral PNS's. Proper monitoring and reporting mechanisms are in place, and initiatives are under way to strengthen the links with health, HIV/AIDS and Disaster Preparedness (DP)/branch development.

The early recruitment of a Wat-San officer, to concentrate on community based training activities was the right decision to complete the MzRC Wat-San team, and to provide adequate and countrywide support. MzRC Wat-San officers improved upon their existing skills by undergoing VCA training and a BTC course.

However, support from Regional Delegation is needed for assistance with financial issues, particularly the present transitional phase from cash requests to direct fund transfers and complementing general management issues.

Sustainable and appropriate water and sanitation infrastructure and systems in accordance with SPHERE and country standards.

18 functional water points were finished; five new boreholes installed with hand pumps; and, 13 boreholes rehabilitated in Nampula and Cabo Delgado. The relevant government department was consulted prior to latrine activities to ensure that the constructed latrines met with government standards. The 288 latrines were then constructed, according to the government standards, and MzRC staff was present during the drilling activities for monitoring the standards.

Increased ability of National Society to implement emergency water and sanitation interventions.

Two MzRC Wat-San staff are members of the Regional Disaster Response team (RDRT), and assisted with some flood assessments related to cyclone Delfina in the Northern and Central provinces in collaboration with other departments. The Society was able to respond relying on its own coping and response mechanisms, and using its stock of water chlorination and relief items. The Society also responded to cholera outbreaks, in collaboration with the Spanish and Austrian Red Cross Societies.


The attendance of girls at school has increased because of the reduction in time needed for fetching water from places that are far from home. The trust in the Society, has raised the MzRC's profile fostering community participation, and encouraging them to adhere to the health and hygiene messages, as they are confident that it contributes to the reduction in diseases.


The heavy rains early in 2003 delayed implementation of drilling activities and subsequent water committee training. Transfer of funds will also have to be done as soon as an agreement between the Regional Delegation and MzRC is done .


MzRC is doing a good job with coordinating all Wat-San activities with the Federation and bilaterally funded Wat-San activities (Spanish, German, Italian, Austrian, Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic Red Cross Societies, and, Oxfam America). The branches are quite active and involved as well. The provincial and district government offices, Departments of Public Works and Housing are well informed about drilling works so as to assure that all projects conform to government standards. A Coordination meeting in Cabo Delgado was held to permit introduce other Wat-San initiatives between the MzRC and the Department of Public Works and housing, and other NGOs.

Disaster Management

MzRC must be commended for having learned from experiences from past disasters, and putting measures in place to improve on the Society's disaster management. The level of damage caused by cyclone Japhet was mitigated because affected communities were prepared to cope with the disasters, through early warning awareness sessions conducted by volunteers and staff in the provinces.

MzRC received USD 46,000 from DREF in Geneva to assist with problems caused by the tropical storm Delfina and cyclone Japhet. The funding was primarily used for Manpula, as it was the most affected area and was responding to the cholera outbreak. MzRC established itself in three districts of Nampula, to increase its capacity to respond to the communities' needs, for an integrated intervention.

Activities undertaken by MzRC included:

  • Deployment of RDRT teams for assessments of the affected districts, to determine the damage and needs of the affected communities.
  • Acquisition of 35 medicine kits for provision of First Aid and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases and water chlorination.
  • Training of volunteers.
  • Sensitisation of the community to relocate to safe areas.
  • Distribution of relief supplies.
  • Technical support to volunteers in the field.
Despite the work created by the disasters, the MzRC was still able to participate in the regionally facilitated VCA Training of Trainers workshops and the Regional Disaster Management planning meeting held in Zimbabwe in February 2003.

The Regional Delegation supported MzRC during cyclone Japhet in the areas of information and logistics. Delegates assist the MzRC with information gathering, and dissemination to relevant stakeholders, including the Secretariat in Geneva.

Overall Goal: Implementation of characteristics of a well-prepared national society has improved the MzRC in the three key areas: know-how, capacity and performance.

Programme Objective: Increased capacity of MzRC in disaster management through the strengthening of the National Society's logistics capacity to allow for well-coordinated responses to disasters.

Achievements Against Expected Results

Objective: The capacity of MzRC in disaster management is enhanced through capacity building and community empowerment.

Staff and volunteers trained in appropriate disaster management by end of 2003.

In order to respond appropriately to the recent emergencies, MzRC undertook an integrated basic training for 150 volunteers to be able to provide, health education covering priority topics and to provide first aid sensitisation of community. Further training is planned for the rest of the year as soon as the emergency response activities are finished.

MzRC also benefited from the regional CVA Trainer of Trainers workshop, to which the Society sent three participants. The MzRC hopes to replicate the training in the country.

Improved disaster preparedness and response capacity nationwide.

With the recent emergencies, MzRC has shown that its disaster preparedness and response capacity is improving, and it is continually putting systems in place to be a well-prepared Society. By using a trained Regional Disaster Response Team (RDRT) staff the situation monitoring early warning measures has improved. The work plan activities for 2003 focus on further strengthening of disaster management capacity.

Appropriate basic emergency stocks pre-positioned in at risk areas.

MzRC has learnt that importance of pre-positioning of emergency stocks. Now, it is the replenishment of emergency stocks, which were distributed in the affected areas, which is the priority. However, logistical capacity to manage the process needs improvement.


MzRC now boast of a strong RDRT with appropriate disaster assessment and response skills. The recent MzRC disaster response activities benefited affected communities by mitigating the extent of damage, and saving lives while the communities were empowered to cope with any eventualities. The quick and appropriate timely response saved lives and reduced human suffering.


Availability of funds for MzRC emergency response activities limited what MzRC could do. The Society, therefore, had to revise its emergency response plan in line with available funds.


MzRC has a good working relationship with the government and continues to work closely with all relevant and international agencies in monitoring and responding to needs. They also work together with the National Institute of Disaster Management.

Organisational Development

A Federation representative is being recruited to work on the Society's integrated strategy, in which OD will play a key role towards change and capacity building. Discussions are on going, as to how to get more support for planned OD activities for the second half of 2003, as the Society did not receive adequate funding from the country appeal.

During the reporting period the Regional Delegation obtained funding from the Norwegian Red Cross, for CHF 15,000 to support MzRC organisational development activities. Discussions were held with the MzRC updating their Cooperation Agreement Strategy (CAS). Also discussed was how the National Society can effectively use the CAS, and how bilateral donor support can contribute to building the Society's capacity.

The regional delegation has been able to facilitate the participation of the MzRC representatives at the Regional Capacity Building Team Workshop in February, at the Regional Resource Mobilisation Workshop in Johannesburg in April, and the Regional Volunteer Management Workshop in Lusaka in June.

The first workshop in Harare came up with Terms of Reference (ToR) for the RCBT, and the two other workshops came up with final statements and plans of action. These will help the Regional Delegation to follow up on the National Society's efforts to scale up their capacity for resource mobilisation and volunteer management issues.

Overall goal: Implementation of characteristics of a well-functioning national society has improved the MzRC in the three key areas: foundation, capacity and performance.

Programme Objective: The National Society's institutional capacity and its progress towards operating as a well-functioning National Society is enhanced through Secretariat support.

Achievement against Expected Results:

Objective: To strengthen the MzRC's structures at all levels, in order to increase its capacity for quality service provision in a sustainable manner.

  • MzRC has in place a strong institutional foundation and an improved governance.
  • MzRC has in place effective leadership and managerial capacity.
  • MzRC has increased its financial resource base in both value and diversity.
As regards to the Organizational Development 2003/2004 plan of action, achievements regarding OD activities essentially focused on adapting and producing operational tools such as: the volunteers management policy and branches development.

The activities mentioned above, are intended to cover the two-year period of the appeal. However, because of some assumptions such as there being a Federation representative and adopting an approach which uses an integrated strategy and a commitment of MzRC to implement changes, the strategic plan continues to be relevant and disaster operations do not hinder implementation of activities.


Volunteers at all levels of the Society know about their rights and obligations, and the importance of collaborating with local authorities. Volunteers and their families have free access to some public hospitals when needed.

Organisational and functioning systems are well understood at all levels of the Society. The positive impact felt to date, does not reflect yet the one that is eventually expected. There will be more activities for the Society's capacity building by implementing activities as part of the strategic plan. Plans of action for resource mobilization, and volunteer management will be used regionally to evaluate the level of improvement of the Society's activities in assisting vulnerable people. The CAS process needs to be updated continuously to maintain the interest of donors in the Society's strategic plan.


The appeal 2003-2004 has not given the expected feedback concerning donors' pledges. Bilateralism is more and more an issue in Mozambique, as it is not including the Society's capacity building approach for branch development, volunteer management and sustainable projects.


The regional OD department has held discussions with the Federation's Finance Development Delegate as well as the MzRC OD Officer regarding the capacity building link to branch development, volunteer management and developing a fundraising plan.

For further information please contact:

  • Harare Regional delegation, Phone: +263 4 705 167, Fax: +263 4 708 784, E-mail:
  • Federation Secretariat, Richard Hunlede, Regional Officer, Phone: +41 22 730 4314, Fax: +41 22 733 0395; email:
All International Federation assistance seeks to adhere to the Code of Conduct and is committed to the

Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response (SPHERE Project) in delivering assistance to the most vulnerable.

For support to or for further information concerning Federation programmes or operations in this or other countries, please access the Federation website at

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