Mozambique Appeal No. 01.18/2003

Originally published


(In CHF)
2004 2
(In CHF)
1. Health and Care
2. Disaster Management
3. Organizational Development
806,034 1
1 USD 552,375 or EUR 547,916.
2 These are preliminary budget figures for 2004, and are subject to revision.


National Context

The total population of Mozambique is estimated to be over 17.2 million people, of whom 52% are women. Population growth rate is about 1.3% and the country’s population is expected to reach 19.7 million by 2010, including adjustment for the impact of HIV/AIDS. The population is predominantly rural, with only 23% of the population living in urban areas (provincial capitals), and almost half the entire urban population of the country living in Maputo city. The population is also very young: in 2000, it was estimated that 44.6% of the population was younger than 15 years and the median age 17.5 years.

Following 16 years of civil war, peace was restored in Mozambique in 1992 and the country has since been struggling with reconstruction and development. The political situation is stable, inflation has been brought under control and the annual GNP growth rate is among the highest in Africa, but the country is heavily dependent upon external aid and has to cope with a growing debt burden. The rapid introduction of structural adjustment has resulted in growing socio-economic polarisation and almost 70% of the population lives in absolute poverty. Mozambique is a disaster-prone country affected by droughts, floods, cyclones and epidemics, and the capacity of communities and the government to respond is limited. Estimates indicate that there remain 2 million antipersonnel mines in the country.

Human Development Indicators at a Glance

Sub-Saharan Africa
Life expectancy at birth (years)
Adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above), 2000
Adult literacy rate (female as % of male), 2000
Combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (%), 1999
GDP per capita (PPP$), 2000
People living with HIV/AIDS, adults (% age 15-49), 2001
Refugees (thousands), in/out, 2000
Source: UNDP HDR 2002

Like other Southern African countries, Mozambique is suffering from the onslaught of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, although to a lesser extent than some of its neighbours. While the precise level of infection is hard to gauge, recent figures from the health ministry suggest that the spread of the disease is less than initially feared - 12.2% in 2001. The new, lower estimate reflects the inclusion of more accurate data from the north, where the spread of the disease appears to have been much slower than initially feared. This makes sense, given the region’s relative isolation-infection rates in the north are less than one-half the level of the south and centre. The new data also confirm the link between infection and mobility, the highest levels appearing at locations with heavy cross border traffic, or where there have been large numbers of returning refugees (such as Manica and Tete). Plans to extend the transport infrastructure and end the north’s isolation thus risk raising the prevalence of HIV in the region.

National Society Priorities

The Mozambique Red Cross (MzRC) has been responding to the needs of the most vulnerable communities within the country since 1989. In recent years, the National Society has had to respond to numerous natural disasters, most prominent being the massive floods in 2000 and 2001. As a result of these interventions, the National Society is recognised as an important humanitarian player within the country by both the population and government. The National Society has, over the years, been able to train an impressive number of volunteers both to respond to disasters as well as to implement ongoing health activities, which are primarily focused on community-based first aid and HIV projects. All programmes are carried out by volunteers. The majority of volunteers live in rural areas and often belong to vulnerable groups themselves.

The MzRC has a clear vision and mission for the next years, as outlined in the Strategic Plan, to meet the needs of the most vulnerable, which is to strengthen the capacity of the most vulnerable members of the population by supporting their development, particularly in protecting their health and improving their social conditions.

The National Society covers all provinces of the country with 11 chapters and 98 branches. Due to emergency operations during the war, subsequent drought and floods, the number of MzRC staff increased considerably. The National Society has an estimated 70,000 members, 3,450 of whom are active volunteers. All programmes are carried out by volunteers.

The National Society’s priorities that will enable it to respond effectively and efficiently to the humanitarian needs in the country are in line with the Strategy 2010, ARCHI 2010 and Ouagadougou Declaration with emphasis and focus on the following:

  • In order to achieve its objectives, the MzRC must first strengthen its capacity, to become a National Association that is capable, strong and independent.

  • The resources and efforts of the MzRC will be centred on those areas that are the priorities defined by the Government programme for rebuilding the country and relieving poverty.

  • To improve and strengthen MzRC Financial Resource Development; to enable the National Society to become a strong National Association, based on the will and hard work of its members, and capable of covering at least its basic costs with its own resources.

  • To strengthen the MzRC structures from top to bottom, in particular the elected bodies, so that the National Association has a quicker response in supporting the victims of any disaster.

  • To improve capacity in disaster management by supporting the development of the communities in reducing their vulnerabilities and create a better capacity to cope with disasters through an integrated policy of prevention and preparation for disasters.

  • To contribute to a reduction in transmission of HIV/STD and to mitigate the spread of the disease in the country by consolidating and strengthening the community-based health programme, with particular emphasis on involvement of the community in health education, education on AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as water and sanitation.

  • To consolidate and strengthen the Social and Youth Area programme, promoting local initiative and the involvement of an increasing number of young people in activities that enable them to improve the living conditions of the people most at risk.

  • To proceed with the institutional development of the MzRC, with emphasis on continuing the improvement of the National Association’s financial position, greater participation of the elected bodies and more training in management of Provincial Offices.

  • To disseminate information on the Red Cross Movement to improve the image of the MzRC at national and international level, as well as knowledge of the principles and doctrine of the Red Cross, through a programme and methods of Information and Publication that are suitable for the new situation.

  • To improve MzRC volunteer management.

Red Cross and Red Crescent Priorities

The CAS for Mozambique was developed during 2001 and the final draft was published on the Federation-based CAS website in early 2002. While this draft will continue to be amended to take into account such changes in the structure of in-country representation of Participating National Societies (PNS) (for example, the closures of the Canadian and American Red Cross representative office in Maputo during the year), the strategies outlined in it remain the same. It is expected that, even with the closures of these two PNS offices, there should not be any major effect on the long-term agreements between these partners and the MzRC. The Austrian Red Cross, who signed a MOU with the MzRC and Canadian Red Cross, has added one short-term finance delegate to the existing structure in its office in Beira.

The MzRC Strategic Plan was revised by its management and approved by its governance in December 2000. The 2001-2003 MzRC Strategic Plan outlines three core programmatic objectives: . To strengthen the capacity of the most vulnerable populations in disaster prevention and disaster response.

  • To play a major role in the campaign against the HIV/AIDS pandemic through prevention and provision of basic health care to people infected with HIV.

  • To improve the health conditions and social welfare of the population through promotion of community-based health and care.

Taking into account the economic and social changes found in the country, and considering the different studies that have had to be made on the poverty situation in the country, the MzRC will seek to work with the following target groups:
  • rural population of the poorest districts in the country, particularly in areas where there is a likelihood of natural disasters, such as successive droughts or floods;

  • poor population of areas around cities; and

  • also within these groups, priority will be given to women who are single parents, children and adolescents in difficult situations, and elderly people who are frail and have no partners. To successfully achieve the objectives outlined in the Strategic Plan, MzRC recognised the need to strengthen its organisational capacities with three specific reinforcement initiatives:
    • To develop a stronger membership-based National Society able to cover the organisation’s basic costs. Strengthen the organisation’s structure in order to improve the impact of its social and relief interventions in the communities, especially in disaster preparedness, prevention and response.

    • Mobilise massive participation of young people in Red Cross activities as a common strategy for all programmes, strengthen their role in the organisation’s statutory bodies and involve them as much as possible as both participants and beneficiaries of its programmes.

    • Improve volunteer recruitment and management.
MzRC management pinpointed that the new programmatic focus and the aim to reach more people required an expansion of the core operational structure. At its headquarters, changes were made to the existing organigram, including the formation of two new departments (HIV/AIDS and Logistics) and the expansion of the Disaster Preparedness department. Staff working on institutional development were refocused to prioritise branch development, volunteer management, and revenue generation. A new structure for each of MRCS’s 11 provinces was established, with staff positions earmarked in every province for each of the core sectors of DP/DR, Health and HIV/AIDS/social welfare. In addition, a new regional zone technical support structure will be established to support more effectively the northern provinces of Niassa, Cabo Delgado, Nampula and Zambezia.

The Executive Council approved the new structure in May 2001. This marks an important commitment to accomplish the goals of the Ouagadougou Declaration (September 2000). However, this also represents a significant increase in the core costs of MzRC. External funding will sustain the activities in the short-term. MzRC intends to diversify its income portfolio in order to sustain its initiatives in the long-term. This can be achieved through government contracts and income generation activities by the National Society. Some of the MzRC initiatives within strengthening its income generation potential, have already been successful. However, for the National Society to make further strides into becoming more self sufficient, more has to be done.

The Secretariat’s delegation in Mozambique as well as PNS operating in the country continue to support the MzRC’s senior management through this change process, providing guidance and advice at every stage of the assessment, analysis and formation of the plan. Support has been provided to the MzRC in the compilation and presentation of its core costs budget and it is expected that in 2003 the MzRC will be able to return to the planning and budgeting process that was developed prior to the floods, that will enable potential partners to identify areas of cooperation. The Federation continues to assist in the consolidation and development of policies, training modules, organisational systems and procedures in each of the core areas and organisational development strategies required to effectively manage these programmes.

Primary Support from the Movement in 2002


Priority Programmes for Secretariat Assistance

The Secretariat’s Country Delegation in Mozambique was rapidly expanded in March 2000, to assist the Mozambique Red Cross in helping the victims of the devastating floods which ravaged the country. Following the completion of the Floods operations at the end of 2001, and with no new major disaster in 2003, the Country Delegation has started the process of downsizing its presence in the country in such a way as to ensure that the needs of the MzRC, especially in terms of technical advice in the core programmes. This has been a process which has been coordinated with the senior management of the MzRC and HoD, to refocus the implicit needs of the MzRC, following a period of development within the structures of the National Society over the past years. It is clear that the MzRC is now in a far better position to manage and implement the majority of its programmes without the need of specific technical delegates.

During the past year the Country Delegation has provide technical support in the key areas of:

  • Health
  • HIV
  • DPP/DR
  • Logistics
  • OD - Finance Development
  • WatSan
  • Program Coordination
  • General Coordination (PNS)
  • Representation

With the gradual planned reduction in delegates, who have ended their missions during 2002 (Program Coordinator, Logistics, DPP/DR, Watsan, Health/HIV, Finance and Administration) more emphasis has been placed on the MzRC to cover the gaps that have been left. Additionally, some PNS have agreed to take more initiative in assisting the MzRC in specific technical areas. Given the need to now phase out the Country Delegation, the senior management within the MzRC have identified the following key areas in which they recognise the added value of assistance from the Federation.
  • Logistics
  • OD - (including Finance Development)
  • Disaster Response
  • Coordination and International Representation

The MzRC recognises that the support from the Country Delegation is time-limited, given the difficulties that the Country Delegation has had in accessing funding, as well as the wealth of support it is receiving bilaterally, both through those PNS working in-country as well as through other partner sister societies. The changes that are taking place through the Change Process in developing the Federation’s Regional as opposed to Country-specific approaches also will play a major role in the decisions on phasing out the Federation’s presence in Mozambique. The areas in which the Regional Delegation have and will to continue to play an increased role as the technical delegate support in-country phases out include:
  • Health /HIV
  • IT Development
  • OD - Capacity building - including support in strengthening the Reporting/Monitoring capacity of the National Society.
  • Logistical Training - To include supporting provincial training initiatives.
  • Watsan - To maintain existing and potentially new program support.

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