Mozambique

Mozambique Annual Appeal No. 01.15/2004

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The International Federation's mission is to improve the lives of vulnerable people by mobilizing the power of humanity. The Federation is the world's largest humanitarian organization, and its millions of volunteers are active in over 180 countries. All international assistance to support vulnerable communities seeks to adhere to the Code of Conduct and the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disa ster Response, according to the SPHERE Project.
This document reflects a range of programmes and activities to be implemented in 2004, and the related funding requirements. These are based upon the broader, multi-year framework of the Federation’s Project Planning Process (PPP). The PPP products are either available through hyperlinks in the text1, or can be requested through the respective regional department. For further information concerning programmes or operations in this or other countries or regions, please also access the Federation website at http://www.ifrc.org

Programme title
2004 in CHF
Strengthening the National Society
Health and Care
1,170,815
Disaster Management
445,598
Organizational Development
271,431
Coordination, Cooperation, and Strategic Partnerships
Coordination and Implementation
233,957
Total
2,121,801

National Context

Since 1995, Mozambique has recorded an average economic growth rate of about 8%, with an estimated growth rate of 10% in 2002 compared with 13.9% in 2001, one of the highest in the world. The country once again confirmed its consistently high macroeconomic performance since the 1990s. Although the current political situation is stable, the forthcoming local, presidential and legislative elections, which are expected to take place in December 2004, can make it susceptible. Inflation dropped sharply from over 50% per annum in the early 1990s to 9% in 2002.

The impressive performance notwithstanding, the country continues to face daunting development problems and challenges with major impact on human development. The impact of the high growth rates has been limited partly because the growth rates represent recovery from very low base levels. The challenges facing the country include governance, expanding resource of economic growth, illiteracy, unemployment, gender inequality, relatively high incidence of HIV/AIDS, high rate of vulnerability to natural calamities as well as the need for legal and judicial reform and public sector reform. In the area of governance, UNDP is helping capacity building in the justice sector, parliament, police service, provincial governments and training in public administration.

Despite the above-mentioned developments, Mozambique remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The 2003 UNDP report indicates that 78.4% of the population lives below the poverty line of USD 2.00 per day. There is wide regional disparity in the incidence of poverty in the country. This ranges from 47% in Maputo city to 87.9% in Sofala. The rates for rural and urban areas are 71.3% and 62% respectively. UNDP Human Development Report for 2003 ranks the country 170 out of 175 countries.

Human development indicators, Mozambique
2001
2000
Population (millions)
18.2
18.3
Life expectancy at birth (years)
39.2
39.3
GDP per capita (P urchasing Power Parity-PPP USD)
1,140
854
Population living below one USD per day (%)
37.9
37.9
Population living below two USD per day (%)
78.4
78.4
Adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above)
45.2
44
People living with HIV/AIDS, adults (%)
13
Access to affordable essential drugs (%)
50-79
Access to water and sanitation (%)
43-57
Malaria cases (per 100,000)
18,115
TB cases (per 100,000)
125
104
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
197
200
Source: UNDP Human Development Reports 2002 and 2003

The government has initiated a national programme of poverty reduction through the implementation of a comprehensive strategy known as the Action Plan to reduce Absolute Poverty (PARPA). This constituted the basis for the IMF/World Bank supported Poverty Reduction Strategic Plan (PRSP). The government’s programme clearly attempts to foster a people-centred policy framework to address the poverty problem. In partnership with NGOs, government has undertaken a number of initiatives to support people living in poverty, particularly those flood and drought-affected.

Mozambique is prone to a wide range of natural disasters with tremendous impact on the people, livestock, property and physical infrastructure. In 2000 and 2001, floods caused considerable disruption and devastation in southern and central parts of the country. The international community played a major role in mobilizing financial assistance to support the reconstruction and recovery programme. In 2003, Mozambique was once again hit by two cyclones and drought. Over 1.2 million people were affected by the cyclones which resulted in increased number of cases of diarrhoea, and cholera, and aggravated an already pre-existing high rate of malnutrition.

The food security situation in the southern and central parts of the country is serious after three to four years of crop failures due to floods and drought. According to FEWS3, the food security situation is seriously deteriorating in the southern and central regions owing to an almost totally failed harvest in the main season (February-April 2003). The short-season harvest in July 2003 will not offset the accumulated effects of two successive years of drought and a substantial worsening of nutritional indicators is now expected in the affected areas. Several factors, other than drought, have also worsened the current food security situation. The high rates of HIV/AIDS infection in the drought-affected areas have reduced the agricultural production capacity; the presence of foot-and-mouth disease is seriously hampering the income from livestock sales, and economic linkages with Zimbabwe have declined owing to its political and economic disruption. The surplus producing harvest experienced in the northern regions of Mozambique is not able to reach the southern drought-affected areas due to poor road infra-structures but is absorbed by the drought-stricken neighbouring countries in the north.

The main causes of death in the country are malaria, communicable diseases, epidemics, deliveries and maternity, malnutrition and diarrhoeal diseases. A study on demographic impact of HIV/AIDS in Mozambique4 estimated that, between 2002 and 2003, 1.36 million people will be living with AIDS: 43% men, 56% women. The projection is 1.6 million for 2004-2005, and 1.71 million for 2006-2007.

Red Cross and Red Crescent Priorities

Movement Context:

The Mozambique Red Cross adopted its first strategic plan at the general assembly in April 1999. In light of experiences gained during and after the devastating flood operations in 2000, coupled with a set of commitments made at the Pan-African Conference of September 2000, the national society elaborated its Co-operation Agreement Strategy 2002-2004 with the support of the Federation to include the a.m. priorities and revised its Strategic Plan in order to incorporate new factors such as:

  • The fight against HIV/AIDS.
  • Launching a 10-year campaign to reduce the vulnerability of Mozambican people against the most common health threats through ARCHI .
  • Prioritizing programmes in line with the Federation Strategy 2010 and its four core areas of disaster preparedness, disaster response, health and care, and the promotion of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement’s Fundamental Principles and Humanitarian Values.

The Mozambique Red Cross Society Co-operation Agreement Strategy 2004-2005 was also developed by the national society with the support of the Federation and with the participation of partner national society representatives in Mozambique

National Society Strategy/Programme Priorities:

The Mozambique Red Cross Society strategic plan 2003-2005 specifies that the main goals for the threeyear period are to strengthen the capacity of the most vulnerable people in disaster preparedness and response, to play a major role in the fight against HIV/AIDS and to improve the health and social wellbeing of the people through community-based interventions. The target groups are rural population in the poorest districts (especially in areas prone to national disasters such as droughts or consecutive floods) and the urban poor.

In order to reach these goals, the Mozambique Red Cross will strengthen its own capacity and promote its sustainability. The national societ y has defined its priorities for 2003-2005:

  • To become a strong member -based national societ y, able to cover at least its core costs from its own resources;
  • To strengthen its structures from grass-root to headquarters levels with an emphasis on the localelected bodies, in order to maximize the impact of its interventions in the communities, especially in the areas of disaster preparedness and response;
  • To support the development of the communities so as to reduce their vulnerability and increase their capacity to deal with disasters through an integrated policy of disaster preparedness and response;
  • To respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic through a major involvement of national society staff and volunteers in the areas of prevention, community-based care to people living with the disease as well as advocacy against HIV/AIDS related stigma and discrimination.
  • To consolidate and strengthen the community-based health programme with emphasis on community involvement in health education, mother and child health care, education on malaria, cholera and other preventable diseases;
  • To continue water and sanitation activities, in particular community education;
  • To promote social support for vulnerable individuals or groups targeting children in difficult circumstances, widows in need, elderly, the disabled, through community-based initiatives;
  • To mobilize massive participation of youths in Red Cross activities as a common strategy for all programmes;
  • To improve volunteer management and to advocate volunteers as the heart of the organization.

Strengthening the National Society

Health and Care

Background and achievements/lessons to date:

Community-based health

Mozambique, like many other African countries, suffers from a high prevalence of poverty-related diseases. The main health problems are HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, cholera and other diarrhoeal diseases, and a high rate of malnutrition among children. Furthermore, the access to health facilities is poor.

The WFP/FAO crop and food supply assessment mission report (2003) estimated 788,000 people in 40 districts are highly vulnerable and food insecure. These figures are expected to increase to 949,000 from October 2003 to March 2004. The average rate of malnutrition in children under five is 6.4%. Although this figure is only slightly above the acceptable average rate of 5%, the malnutrition rates are severe in Gaza, Maputo, and Tete. The nutritional survey assessment carried out in June 2003 by Mozambique Red Cross in three districts of Gaza province found a malnutrition rate of 10.7%. The current food insecurity situation will certainly aggravate this already serious pre-existing situation.

The Mozambique Ministry of Health (MoH) requested UNICEF and the Mozambique Red Cross to implement supplementary feeding in six districts in the four provinces of Tete, Manica, Sofala, and Maputo. Furthermore, in response to the national society’s internal drought appeal, the German Red Cross has been funding supplementary feeding in Gaza province in three districts to benefit 63,471 people (children under five, and pregnant and lactating women) and Belgian and Netherlands Red Cross have also started to support a similar project in Manica and Inhambane provinces for six to nine months.

In November 2002, the Ministry of Health reported that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the country is 13%. Due to the compounding effects of consecutive crop failures, near -chronic food insecurity, high rates of HIV/AIDS, and deteriorated income possibilities from migrant labour, PLWHA are the most vulnerable in the drought-affected areas.

In the context of ARCHI 2010, the national society is already implementing health promotion, prevention and first aid activities at the community level both in long-term development projects and in emergency situations. The national society has an extensive network of approximately 2,600 volunteers who have been trained in community-based first aid.

In agreement with the Ministry of Health and ARCHI policies and guidelines , the Mozambique Red Cross has been implementing the following health initiatives during 2002-2003 in cooperation with its partner national societies (Belgian, Canadian, Danish, Icelandic, Italian, Netherlands, Norwegian and Spanish Red Cross Societies ), the Federation, UNICEF, government and others:

  • Malaria promotion, prevention, including the use of mosquito nets, and treatment of the cases.
  • Nutritional activities: prevention and support in cooperation with the MoH in the treatment of moderate and severe malnutrition in children under five, and pregnant and lactating women (supplementary feeding).
  • Promotion and prevention of HIV/AID S, first aid and care to PLWHA.
  • Information, education, water chlorination, latrine construction, ORS promotion and distribution during cholera epidemics.
  • Support to the government on the promotion of mass vaccination campaigns and routine immunization, vitamin A supplements to children.
  • According to the community-based health care approach, construct and maintain national society first aid posts, improve community participation, prevent and treat the main endemic diseases.
  • Provision of essential basic sanitation to reduce the level of faecal-oral transmissible diseases.

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