International Appeal of the Government of Mozambique for Emergency Relief and Initial Rehabilitation

Originally published

In collaboration with the United Nations Agencies

(15 February 2000 to 15 August 2000)

Maputo, Mozambique
23 February 2000


1. Appeal Objective

On 10 February 2000, the Government of Mozambique appealed to the international community for US$2.7 million to implement emergency humanitarian assistance following severe flooding caused by heavy rains, which had initially affected Maputo and Matola cities. Subsequently, flooding has also affected much of Maputo and Gaza provinces and the central portions of Mozambique. Field assessment carried out by national authorities, in collaboration with aid agencies and the United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination Team (UNDAC), established the urgent need for a comprehensive approach to the emergency between national and provincial authorities and international partners.

The objective of the United Nations Inter-Agency Appeal is to solicit contributions for emergency relief and initial rehabilitation in the regions most affected by the floods affecting the severe flooding in Mozambique during the months of January and February 2000. The cost of the gross requirements is US$ 13,631,885 of which US$1,395,500 has already been received from donors leaving a net requirement of US$ 12,236,385.

This appeal covers six months period, from 15 February to 15 August 2000. The requirements of appealing United Nations agencies are based upon consultations on the scale of the disaster, capacities and resources available in Mozambique and priority needs. These consultations have involved national authorities, the United Nations (UN), the Red Cross and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) within and among the emergency sectors involved.

IFRC is currently conducting an updated assessment of needs outside Maputo City and province and will revise its original appeal launched on 11 February for other provinces. Attached to this document in Annex 2 are highlights from the IFRC appeal document for information.

Table 1. Summary table on requirements by UN agency

UN Agency
Gross Requirements in US$
Donor Contributions Received in US$
Net Requirements in US$

2. Impact of the disaster

Torrential rains from 4-7 February 2000 compounded the flooding already caused by seasonal rainfall, leading to the worst flooding in southern Mozambique in nearly half a century. Precipitation levels in affected areas far exceeded levels normally received during the rainy season. The accumulation of rainfall during the three-day period in Maputo Province alone reached 455 mm compared to 594.9 mm from September 1998 to January 1999.

Table 2: Accumulation of Precipitation per Station - 4 to 7 February.

Meteorological Station
(in mm)
Maputo - Observatory
Maputo - Mavalane
*Source, INAM

In addition, heavy rainfall in neighbouring South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Swaziland further exacerbated the situation. During the second week of February, water levels in the reservoirs in Mozambique and nearby rose drastically. As a result of this increased volume, waves of water, reaching up to eight meters high, descended the rivers of Limpopo, Incomati and Umbeluzi. The provinces most affected by the floods are Maputo/Maputo, Gaza, the northern part of Inhambane, where over 100,000 hectares of agricultural land have been flooded, with substantial crop losses.

As of the 20 February atleast 70 people, were reported to have died mostly by drowning. By the same period, the Government estimated that 300,000 persons had been directly affected by the floods, having lost either houses or livelihoods, and were in need of immediate assistance. This figure was expected to rise, as the rainy season lasts up to March. While this document was being processed (February 20), Tropical Cyclone "Eline" moved into the channel of Mozambique and was expected to bring heavy rains to the southern and central portions of the country. Preliminary assessment of the impact of cyclone "Eline" which hit Mozambique from 21-22 February 2000, shows mostly Inhambane (Vilankulo and Govuro) and Sofala (Beira). Infact, the central hospital in Vilanculos suffered power failure while Govino had damages in houses and the road was cut off from EN1. In Beira two people died by electrocution around 90 power towers were damaged with telephone failure and left some houses roofless.

Total Affected Population
Maputo City
Maputo Province

The figures of the affected population are expected to rise taking into account severe climatic conditions in Mozambique and the Southern Africa region on the whole. Cyclone-prone provinces such as Zambezia and Nampula, as well as other areas not presently included in the Appeal, may be affected by flooding before the end of the rainy season. Affected population figures could be up to 100,000 in those areas.

National efforts to address this emergency were mobilised at the start of the emergency from all Government departments and ministries, national NGOs and civil society. The national relief effort has been coordinated by the Instituto Nacional de Gestão de Calamidades - National Institute for Disaster Management (INGC).

In addition, the international community operating in country, (donors, UN agencies, the Red Cross and NGOs) immediately mobilised to assist the affected population, as rapidly became clear that the disaster placed an enormous strain on the Government. Mozambique is struggling with the economic consequences of a 16-year long internal conflict, which came to an end in 1992. Although it has achieved an unusually high economic growth rate in recent years, life expectancy does not exceed an average of 43.2 years, and the infant mortality rate stands at 117.56 deaths/1,000 live births according to 1999 Government estimates.

At the request of the United Nations Resident Coordinator in consultation with the Government, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) dispatched a UNDAC team to Mozambique on 11 February 2000.

3. Strategy and Priorities of the Humanitarian Relief Operation

Initially, the relief operation targeted urban areas within Maputo and Matola cities and the areas flooded by the Maputo, Incomati, and Limpopo rivers. The prompt arrival of five helicopters and two fixed-wing aircraft of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) facilitated the delivery of food and relief supplies, as it was not possible to reach the affected areas by road. Food, humanitarian supplies and aviation fuel was propositioned by road as far as possible to make best use of the helicopters. Nevertheless, the operation cost the South African Government $100,000 per day.

The relief operation can be divided into three phases.

Phase 1

Immediate priorities

  • Rescue and evacuation of nearly 2,500 people stranded by the flood water
  • Immediate supply of food to major settlements cut off from Maputo
  • Assessment of water and sanitation, medical requirements and damage to key infrastructure
  • Establishment of a central coordination structure for international assistance
Phase 2 (towards 3rd week of February)

As the floodwater started to subside, the relief operation entered a second phase. Flooding on the Maputo and Incomati rivers, and the state of the dams at Massingir and Curumane, is no longer a major concern. However, the main focus of the operation is the Limpopo floodplain between Chokwe and the sea, and the stretch of damaged road between Palmeiras and Macia. The damaged section of the road cuts off this area from Maputo. Until this is repaired, the area will be depended on the delivery of relief goods and food by air.

Of the total number of persons affected, along with the rest of the country, a substantial number are estimated to be living in temporary shelters and community centres, where the major need is for food, water, sanitation assistance and basic health services. The major risk, in view of the prevailing conditions, is an increased incidence of malaria and the threat of cholera. The scale of the health problems may not be known for several weeks.


  • Continued supply of food
  • Supply by air of medical supplies and non-food items to the Limpopo floodplain
  • Ensure preparations are in place for possible malaria and cholera epidemic
  • Mobilise international support for SANDF air operations
  • Emergency repairs to the Palmeira/Macia road
Phase 3

The population in the Limpopo river basin was already highly vulnerable before the floods. It is necessary to address this through the essential infrastructure (healthcare structures the Maputo road) and support to agriculture. The markets in the six principal towns (Chokwe, Magude, Palmeiras, Macia, Xai-Xai) are dependent on the Maputo road. They are central to the economic life of the province and are presently inactive. Many of the local health centres, damaged or destroyed would be needed for preparedness against a possible malaria and cholera epidemic and for the provision of primary health care. Repair of the road, support for primary health care disrupted by the floods and a seeds and tools programme to support agriculture will be the priorities in this phase. In addition, the rehabilitation of damaged school buildings and restocking of schools with necessary supplies will be required.


  • Support for primary healthcare
  • Repair schools and provide educational supplies
  • Seeds and tools
  • Permanent repair to the Maputo highway ( see annex 3)
4. Logistics Situation/Infrastructure

Access to populations in need has emerged as the major constraint for national and international efforts in addressing this emergency. Damage to the road network has seriously hampered both assessment of needs and delivery of assistance to affected families. Critical railways have either have had their embankments washed away or are under water. The use of boats is mostly ineffective because of the danger of strong currents and their small capacity. The wetness of the soil has rendered airstrips across the affected provinces impracticable for heavy aircraft. This environment has restricted the means of transportation to helicopter and light planes in some of the most affected areas. The national and international partners, however, are using road transport wherever possible to deliver food or to position supplies up-country.

The Government’s preliminary assessment of the damage caused by the storm and rains on the infrastructure is alarming. Several main roads, including the connections with South Africa and Swaziland, were severely affected. Four bridges were destroyed in the Gaza Province only. As of the second week of February, National Road no.1, which connects the capital Maputo with rest of the country, had been cut at several locations. The embankments of several bridges were washed away by the floods. The Mozambique Ministry of Public Works and Housing estimated that replacements of critical bridges and urgent repair of vital access roads would require about US$ 30.5 million. Costs for repairs of hydraulic structures is estimated at US$4.6 million and needs for flood control is US$950,000. Similarly, the railway and electric networks require repairs estimated to cost US$ 5.95 million and US$4.5 million respectively. Urban resettlement requirements are estimated at 3.5US$ million. Repairs to the infrastructure should be of high priority, as a backbone of the economy. The preliminary assessment of needs in these sectors is included in Annex 3 for information.

At the onset of the disaster, the Defence Force of South Africa placed at the disposal of Mozambique the air capacity of its (SANDF). Between 11 and 18 February, a total of 2475 persons were rescued through this effort. In addition, the SANDF has provided critical assistance to national and international assistance delivery efforts. The air operation covered initially from Maputo and Beira is now based on two main locations, Maputo airport and the emergency airstrip at Palmeiras about 100km from Maputo towards Xai-Xai.

Air assets available in country as at 20 February 2000:

  • 5 Helicopters and 3 fixed wing aircraft operated by the SANDF.
  • Helicopters (2 x MI-8) and other light aircraft operated by the Mozambique Defence Forces.
  • A chartered light aircraft operated on behalf of WFP.
  • A Transall aircraft provided on 19 February by the Government of France.
A light helicopter has also been funded by USAID through WFP for the use by the agencies and INGC (up to 60 hours) for their assessment missions to otherwise inaccessible parts of the country. The coordination centre established by INGC with assistance from the UNDAC Team runs this helicopter.

5. Priority emergency needs and requirements by sector

Table 3: Beneficiary numbers by sector

No. of Beneficiaries
Water and Sanitation
Agriculture and Tools
* average over 90 days

5.1 Food

(i) Objective

Food is an essential basic need and a high priority in terms of emergency requirements. The immediate objective of the WFP emergency food assistance is to save lives and maintain health and acceptable nutrition status of those in rural areas who have lost crops and household food stocks, those in urban areas who have lost means of income and access to food, and those in temporary shelters who are displaced. A high proportion of these people have lost homes and their possessions. When conditions permit a return home of the displaced population, the food assistance objective will be to support recovery and rehabilitation activities through food-for-work.

(ii) Justification

Most of the cultivated land in the southern region is affected. About two thirds of the cultivated areas (100,000 ha) has possibly been lost, totalling respectively 30,000 and 70,000ha in Maputo and Gaza. Losses in Sofala Province may be as much as 30,000 ha, Manica and Tete Provinces about 20,000 ha. This potential loss is already twice as high as any previous loss recorded due to floods. A substantial number of the population affected by the floods were already living below the poverty line and considered to be highly vulnerable in the context of food security. Damage to the national road and bridges has resulted in limited, if not impossible access to the affected population by road.

The food assistance includes maize/maizemeal, beans, oil and sugar. This ration provides 2,170 kcal, 60 grams of protein and 40 grams of fat and is satisfactory under the current conditions. A family relief pack is also being supplied containing the same foodstuffs, with the addition of soup. High-energy biscuits will be provided to children and adults who suffer from malnutrition.

(iii) Strategy

With food stocks already in-country for current development activities, WFP has accessed these stocks to respond immediately to the food requirements of those affected by the flood in the southern provinces (Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane), the cities of Maputo and Matola, and the central provinces (Sofala and Manica). WFP has launched an official Emergency Operational Project (EMOP) to be able to replace stocks and formalise the assistance as an emergency intervention. The EMOP is reflected in this document budget. In addition, WFP has purchased family food packs through funds from the WFP immediate response emergency mechanism. The total cost is US$181,000 for food, transport, non-food items and operational expenses.

Food is being transported in several ways. It is being trucked from Maputo for pre-positioning in Manhica and Palmeira, from where it is airlifted. Airlifting has also been used in Sofala Province while in Inhambane road transport has been possible. Family food packs will be airlifted. As soon as road access improves the airlift will no longer be required.

WFP launched a local request for funds to charter an aircraft to lift food and non-food items, and increase the airlift capacity. This initiative has been well received with donor contributions coming in against the total budget of $598,400. WFP has also received funds for positioning a helicopter dedicated to assist government, UN, NGOs to increase capacity to assess needs.

Of the 300,000 people estimated to be affected, WFP will provide food assistance to 110,000 people located in the areas described above over a period of 90 days (late February through late May 2000). Out of this number, 60,000 children will receive high-energy biscuits.

(iv) Responsibility for Implementation

Government Responsible Institution: INGC

Partner UN Agency: WFP

The provision of emergency food is one of the major relief activities coordinated by the Government through the INGC. Requirements announced by the local authorities are assessed jointly by government, UN, NGO and donor representatives.

Food distribution on site is the responsibility of both local committees of the flood displaced, mainly composed of women. Selected NGOs are also helping with food transport and when possible, distribution and monitoring. Provincial governors, city councils and district administrations are also key players in the implementation of the food distribution.

WFP has food monitors positioned in key distribution points to ensure regular feedback of information, reporting, and assessments of the situation.

(v) Budget

UN Agency
Maize (4950 MT)
Pulses (495 MT)
Vegetable Oil (198 MT)
Sugar (198 MT)
High Energy Biscuits (55 MT)
Family Food Packs
Non-Food Items (Kitchen sets and Recovery items)
Assessment and Follow-up
Transport (External/Internal Air/bridge)
Operational and Support Costs

5.2 Health

(i) Objectives

  • To increase capacity of the health system to respond to the emergency
  • To prevent and treat waterborne diseases, such as cholera and other diarrhoeas diseases
  • To treat malaria cases among flood victims in a timely manner and prevent malaria outbreaks
  • To treat acute respiratory diseases in flood victims
  • To prevent epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases, such as meningitis and measles.
  • To prevent and treat malnutrition among young children, and pregnant and lactating women;
  • To respond to women’s special health needs, especially in reproductive health.
(ii) Problem Statement/Justification for Appeal

Many of the affected areas of the cities of Maputo and Matola and the provinces of Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane and to a lesser extent Sofala, are still without access to safe drinking water, health care and other basic services. Most of the population in need of humanitarian assistance is displaced people who are currently housed in temporary shelters.

Of the 300,000 people affected by the floods, 60,000 are children under five-years of age, most of whom have had little food and safe drinking water since the beginning of the flooding. Reports received from the affected areas show an increase in the number of cases of severe and moderate malnutrition among children.

Inadequate sanitary conditions have significantly increased the number of communicable diseases and the risk of outbreaks such as malaria and cholera. The stagnant floodwater and the heavy concentration of people in temporary shelters have drastically increased the incidence of malaria. Outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases such as measles and meningitis are also major threats, to which immediate response is needed.

An estimated 15,300 of the 300,000 persons affected, are pregnant women, of whom 4,600 are expected to deliver within the coming three months. These women require special attention and urgent care to ensure safe delivery. Even under normal circumstances, Mozambique has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world (1059 per 100,000 live birth).

Health services in the affected areas are overwhelmed by the number of patients and are working beyond capacity. Drug stocks are running out, and there is a serious shortage of health workers.

(iii) Strategy

  • Support to coordination
  • Rapid assessment
  • Health and nutrition needs of affected population
  • Health system capacity to respond to the emergency
  • Disease prevention and control
  • Environmental health
  • Treatment of common illnesses: malaria, diarrhoea diseases, and acute respiratory infections;
  • Epidemics preparedness and response
  • Immunisation
  • Social communication
  • Prevention and treatment of malnutrition among young children
  • Treatment of severe malnutrition
  • Supplementation of Vitamin A
  • Growth monitoring and surveillance
  • Reproductive health care
  • Clean delivery
  • Provision of Iron/folic acid
  • STD prevention & family planning
  • Health Information System
  • Rapid alert system for detection of epidemics and malnutrition
  • Operational and Logistic support, incl. transport through helicopter
(iv) Responsibility for implementation

Government Responsible Institution: MISAU

Partner UN Agency: UNICEF,WHO and UNFPA

UN support aims to strengthen national capacity to implement and coordinate humanitarian assistance. The appealing agencies will work primarily through national counterparts and local authorities using existing coordination mechanisms under the umbrella of the INGC. The agencies will work in partnership with the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Red Cross and a number of NGOs (MSF, SCF-UK, Action contre la Faim).

(v) Budget (US$)

Essential drugs
Cholera camps, health care in shelters
Support to Immunisation campaign incl. Transport Cost
Social Communication Community mobilisation
Treatment of severe malnutrition
(est. 2,200 severely malnourished)
Micro-nutrients (Vit. A)
Reproductive Health
Clean delivery kits
1kit/10,000 people/3 months
Communication equipment
Technical assistance
Logistics and Ops. support cost
Grand Total

5.3 Water and Sanitation

(i) Objectives

  • Assist in the prevention of outbreaks of cholera and other water-borne diseases;
  • Ensure access of affected population to sanitation facilities;
  • Support the promotion of personal and environmental hygiene in all affected areas.
(ii) Problem Statement and Justification

Many of the affected areas are still without access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities. Although water supplies in Maputo and Matola cities are coming back to normal much work still need to be done in the Incomati and Limpopo valleys. Many water supply systems in Gaza, Maputo and Inhambane provinces are currently under water with serious damage to pumping and treatment works. In addition, the small systems, wells and boreholes etc. are flooded and contaminated.

Sanitation is a problem in all flooded areas, increasing the number of cases of diarrhoea and other communicable diseases and the risk of a cholera outbreak. A few confirmed cases of cholera have already been reported in the Maputo and Sofala provinces. The mosquito-friendly environment caused by stagnant floodwater and poor sanitation, combined with the high concentration of people in displaced settlements, have significantly increased the number of malaria cases. Reports show that the malaria cases are at least three times higher in flooded areas than in normal conditions.

(iii) Strategy

  • Hygiene promotion focussing on personal hygiene/handwashing, proper management and storage of water supply in the home and latrine use.
  • Sanitation initiatives focussing on soap distribution, the construction of simple latrines and where appropriate, the rehabilitation of existing sanitation facilities. The priority is to support the provision of sanitation facilities in displaced people’s shelters, schools and health facilities.
  • Water supply initiatives, which could be an individual or combination of individual activities in the following areas: individual chlorinating of household water supplies, cleaning/disinfection of existing wells and boreholes, quality control, provision of jerrycans, water transport, i.e. and small repairs and treatment systems damaged in the floods.
  • Disinfection of housing and shelters: provision of chemicals/spraying equipment and cleaning equipment to disinfect houses and shelters.
  • Evacuation of solid waste: provision of tools, shovels, buckets and protective clothing, etc. This will also include a communication campaign to promote appropriate disposal and burying of solid waste as part of the post-flood clean up.
The above are priorities agreed in the intersectoral, inter-agency support group. This group was created to support and co-ordinate the emergency response in the water and sanitation sectors. The aim is to ensure that an integrated water, sanitation and hygiene promotion will be pursued in all areas.

(iv) Responsibility for implementation

Government Responsible Institution: MOPH

Partner UN Agency: UNICEF/WHO

UN support aims to strengthen national capacity to implement and coordinate humanitarian assistance. The appealing agencies will work primarily through local authorities and NGOs using existing coordination mechanisms under the umbrella of the INGC.

(v) Budget (US$)

Rapid Assessment
Provision of sanitation facilities
Chlorination of water sources (15tons of chlorine)
Hygiene promotion - education
Water supply (pumping equipment, switchgear, piping, and labour)
Emergency water supply (trucking of water, water tanks/bladders, jerricans, etc)
Disinfection of housing and shelters (chemicals/spraying equipment, cleaning equipment, disposables, etc.)
Evacuation of solid waste (tools, shovels, buckets and protective clothing, etc.
Logistics and operational/support cost

5.4 Shelter

(i) Objective

The objective is to provide immediate temporary shelter and basic resettlement materials to people internally displaced as result of floods.

(ii) Justification

100,000 people in the provinces of Maputo and Gaza have been displaced from their villages damaged by severe flooding. Their property and dwellings became submerged under water or swept away by the currents. Urgent basic shelter is required to avoid serious out- break of disease.

(iii) Strategy

  • Supply of 120 tents for use of dispensaries and field health units, storage facilities for perishables.
  • Supply of 1250 rolls of plastic sheeting for the accommodation of 20,000 families.
  • Supply of 60,000 blankets (3 per family).
  • Supply of 10 river - boats with engines for the delivery of resettlement materials to assist displaced people in isolated areas.
  • Supply resettlement materials. (For details refer to Food, Water and Sanitation sections of this document).
(iv) Responsibility for Implementation

Government Responsible Institution: INGC

Partner UN Agency: UNDP

The programme for providing shelter will be coordinated by the INGC and UNDP. Implementation will be carried out in collaboration with Cruz Velmelha de Moçambique (CVM) - the Red Cross of Mozambique, MSF, UNICEF, WFP and WHO.

(v) Budget

UN Agency
350 Tents
1250 Plastic Rolls (4x60m)
60,000 Blankets
60 Rubber Boats with engines
Logistics and Operations support (20%)

5.5 Agriculture

(i) Objective

The aim in the agricultural sector is to provide critical seed production inputs to farmers in the southern and central provinces affected by the flooding so that they can begin to re-establish their farming livelihoods in the forthcoming second crop season (March/April through June).

(ii) Justification

Excessive rainfall followed by unprecedented flooding in the southern and central provinces caused tremendous loss to standing crops and livestock. This situation may seriously affect subsequent crop planting in the region in addition to diminished quality of farm food stocks. The floods have also killed livestock and destroyed both farm homesteads and roads. The loss to the farmers in the affected region is compounded by the fact that a significant number had already replanted due to irregularity experienced in the rainfall pattern.

Preliminary estimates, from provincial authorities, indicate that over 100,000 planted hectares have been destroyed and/or seriously affected. The affected crops in the order of importance are maize, beans, rice, sweet potatoes, peanuts and vegetables.

(iii) Strategy

Government preliminary estimates indicate that 62,600 farming households (approximately 313,000 people) are affected by the flooding. Due to limited access to the affected areas, extensive field assessments have not yet been possible. The appeal addresses the emergency needs of these families with a package containing 10 kg of maize, 3 kg of beans and 10 grams each of tomato, onion and cabbage, as well as basic tools. Emergency veterinary assistance will also be provided. The activities to be implemented are summarised as follows:

  • Immediate provision of a standard emergency package of seeds and tools to the worst affected farmers for crops to be planted in the second crop season (March/April); and
  • Initiating a more intensive and detailed assessment of the extent and nature of the damages caused.
Following the emergency phase, FAO will assist Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MOARD) in formulating a post-emergency rehabilitation programme to be completed by the 2000/2001 agricultural cropping seasons starting in September 2000.

(iv) Responsibility for Implementation

Government Responsible Institution: MADR

Partner UN Agency: FAO

The assesment of agricultural needs was done by MADR in collaboration with FAO. The seed emergency packages will be procured locally and distributed by the MADR in collaboration with UN agencies, NGOs, by lateral donors, local authorities, as well as farmers associations. An in-depth field assessment will be jointly conducted by MADR and FAO as soon as the field conditions allow.

(v) Budget

UN Agency
Emergency Seed Packages
Maize (565 t), Beans (170 t)
Vegetable seeds (1.7 t)
(Hoe, Cutlass, Axe, Sickle)
Transport and Distribution
Detailed-Assessment Mission

5.6 Education

(i) Objectives

The aim in addressing the education sector is to minimise the impact of floods on the school population and communities affected areas in the provinces of Maputo City and Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane provinces.

The specific objectives are to:

  • make a rapid assessment of the current needs in affected schools.
  • increase the education system capacity to respond to the emergency situation caused by floods in Mozambique
  • provide learning and teaching materials to children and teachers affected.
  • provide supplies for rehabilitation and cleaning of schools affected by floods
  • provide basic schools equipment
(ii) Problem Statement and Justification

As a result of the floods, the school system in the four most affected provinces of Maputo City and Province, Gaza and Inhambane have been substantially destroyed. School buildings have been lost. The number of schools affected, reported by the provincial directorates of education, is as follows:

Maputo City
25, 500
Maputo Province
24, 000
12, 795
62, 295

(iii) Strategy

  • Support to the Ministry of Education in the co-ordinating the relief activities
  • Rapid assessment of the situation of the affected school communities
  • Purchase and distribution of Teaching and Learning Materials for affected Teachers and pupils.
  • Provision of basic school equipment and supplies for the minimum rehabilitation of destroyed schools
(iv) Responsibility for Implementation

Government Responsible Institution: MINED

Partner UN Agency: UNESCO UNESCO (62 schools), UNICEF (79 schools)

(v) Budget

Basic learning materials 62.295 schools x
$ 2.71
Basic teaching materials 1073 teachers
School equipment 141 schools
1. Sub-total
Rehabilitation and clean-up of schools
Maputo City
Maputo Province
Gaza Province
Inhambane Province
2. Sub-total
Rapid needs assessment
Logistical and operations support
(20%, rehabilitation)

5.7 Communications

(i) Objective

The objective is to provide communities affected by severe flooding with authoritative, accurate and timely information (and instruction).

(ii) Strategy

There is an immediate need to provide information to the flood victims. They will require:

  • information on preferable refuge and evacuation points;
  • location of secure shelters and refugee camps;
  • updates on the weather and on the progress of the flood waters;
  • information on the availability and location of emergency food, fresh water and other supplies;
  • messages from persons inquiring as to the well-being of family members;
  • information on crops which are suited for short term production in the current environment;
  • information from health authorities on actions which must be taken to prevent water-borne diseases.
To this effect, the following actions are required:
  • Procure and deploy a mobile FM radio transmitter and studio to broadcast messages on health to affected population.
  • Distribute 100 wind-up radios to affected communities.
(iii) Responsibility for implementation

Government Responsible Institution: MTC


The radio facility will be under the direct control of INGC. Together with the Instituto de Comunicação Social - Institute of Social Communication (ICS), this facility be responsible for identifying announcers and for obtaining relevant content from appropriate ministries as well as NGOs and other civil society entities. The proposed facility can be used in non-emergency situations to assist in the training of personnel for the fast growing community radio sector in Mozambique. Both ICS and UNESCO are currently involved in community radio initiatives. It is expected that in the long term, the structures being established for the management of community radio stations will, with Radio Mozambique and the INGC, constitute an important information network to be used in emergency situations.

(iv) Budget

UN Agency
A Mobile Radio station
Three 4 X 4 vehicle to transport radios
50 unwinding radios (free from INGC)
100 unwinding radios
220 volts Generator
Operational costs
Grand Total

5.8 Co-ordination and Management

(i) Background

At the onset of the emergency, in agreement with the Government of Mozambique, the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) deployed an UNDAC team to assist the INGC and the UN Disaster Management Team under the lead of the United Nations Resident Coordinator. In view of facilitating INGC’s disaster response coordination role, the UNDAC team facilitated the establishment of a Coordination Centre. UNDP, through its Emergency Response Division, immediately made US$ 50,000 available to provide the Coordination Centre with the required support, including computers, office and communication equipment, as well as interpretation and clerical services.

(ii) Objectives

In order for INGC to fulfil its expected role in coordinating relief assistance, it is essential that the Coordination Centre continue its activities. The objectives will be to:

1) Ensure the continuation of effective cooperation between Government structures, donors, UN organisations and other agencies involved in relief efforts.

2) Evaluate the overall impact of the floods and monitor the implementation and the impact of the relief and emergency rehabilitation actions.

3) Guarantee timely and complete reporting of donations received, received against the UN appeal.

(iii) Strategy

To achieve these objectives, the functioning of the Coordination Centre will be ensured after the departure of the UNDAC team (by 25 February 2000) through the recruitment of an information and reporting officer and one clerical staff for six months. Adequate means of transport will be provided and some office supplies will also be procured. OCHA will assist the UN Resident Coordinator in the coordinating and monitoring of emergency relief and immediate rehabilitation phase for a period of six months, through the provision of a disaster management expert.

This will allow INGC to assess the impact of the current floods, monitor the implementation and impact of the relief and rehabilitation activities, and the needs for further intervention. On the basis of this experience the coordination centre will formalise the procedures, structures and methodologies for such activities in the future. An evaluation will be carried out of lessons learned, so that they can be integrated into the National Disaster Management Plan.

(iv) Budget

Government Responsible Institution: INGC

Partner UN Agencies: UNDP/OCHA

The estimated budget for the functioning of the INGC Coordination Centre and the evaluation:

UN Agency
Disaster Management Expert
Information and Reporting Officer
Clerical staff
4x4 vehicle
Office supplies , fuel, communications

Annex 1: Collaboration with NGOs /The Red Cross

Food Action Aid, Caritas, Concern, World Vision, CCM,SCF-US, MBEU
Water & Sanitation OXFAM
Agriculture To be identified
Education REDD Barna, SCF

Annex 2: Extracts from IFRC Appeal no 04/2000 launched on 11 February 2000.

The complete document can be found on the IFRC website: www.IFRC.ORG

Mozambique Floods Appeal No: 04/2000 11 February 2000

This appeal seeks CHF 2,555,250 in cash and services to assist 10,000 beneficiaries for 6 months.

Red Cross Action

1. Health

  • provision of First Aid.
  • home visits to give basic preventive health education
  • establishment of First Aid Posts in areas without sanitation.
  • chlorination of water supplies
2. Supplementary activities:
  • Psychological support to traumatised flood victims
  • Fund-raising in cash and kind to assist flood victims
  • Special attention is paid to the needs of vulnerable elderly, women and children, many of whom have been made destitute.
3. Coordination

The Mozambique Red Cross Society is the only humanitarian organisation permanently represented at the INGC and plays an important function as adviser to this body. The MRCS has representation at every level throughout Mozambique.

4. Assessment of Needs

The approximately 10,000 people of the people who have been evacuated into Greater Maputo need shelter, blankets, healthcare, potable water, sanitation, and social services. WFP/Government will meet food requirements but the Red Cross will offer their support if needed. This appeal is to include capacity building within the national society and to support implementation. Requirements are:

  • 400 tents for shelter
  • 5000 blankets and 3000 cotton wraps
  • Kitchen utensils (1.500)
  • Soap, chlorine, medical kits (50 PS1 and 25 PS2)
  • Materials for temporary water supply, water purification and latrine construction
  • Materials for vector control
  • Construction materials for rehabilitation
  • 2 vehicles
  • Transport, fuel and maintenance
  • Storage costs
  • Essential construction materials for housing rehabilitation
  • Telecommunications
  • Office materials and equipment
  • Training and refresher courses for volunteers
5. Immediate Needs covered by this Appeal
  • Provision of adequate shelter, blankets and utensils
  • Provision of safe water and sanitation facilities
  • Support to Ministry of Health, curative and preventative health
  • Targeting of the most vulnerable
  • Social services
6. Anticipated Later Needs
  • Rehabilitation, particularly in construction of housing
  • Continuation of social services, particularly of the most vulnerable
  • Health education and preventative health measures
7. Red Cross Objectives

The overall objective of the MRCS intervention is to provide humanitarian assistance to those most affected by floods in Greater Maputo.

  • To reduce the damage caused by the floods to the population in the provinces, and to improve their conditions during the period of refuge and upon return to their homes.
  • The operation has the following specific objectives in the short and medium term:
  • To provide temporary shelter and support to rehabilitation of ruined homes
  • To provide first aid and support to the Ministry of Health
  • To disseminate preventive health care through the distribution of health education materials and home visits.
  • To limit the occurrence of diseases caused by flooding, lack of safe water and poor sanitation.
Annex 3: Infrastructure - Government Request for assistance

Roads, Bridges, Railways and Electricity Network.

Roads and Bridges

Several main roads, including the connections with South Africa and Swaziland, were severely affected as a month of the floods. Some bridges were damaged or washed away. The National Road no.1 that connects the Capital Maputo with the rest of the country has been cut at several places, and embankments of bridges have been washed away by the rising waters. Based on the field assessment of the Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MOPH), an emergency intervention strategy has been outlined that encompasses the following objectives:

  • Restoration of the transport links between Maputo and the rest of the country and with the neighbouring countries in order to transport persons and goods.
  • Prevent future severe infrastructure damage by natural disasters.
Create basic urban road infrastructure in areas for resettlement. Some repair work has already started using Government’s own financial resources. Further funding from the World Bank loan for the ROCS project is being negotiated to begin to address the more serious problems. MPOH estimates the cost for the intervention strategy to be US$ 30.5 million. In addition needs for temporary road signs is estimated by the Ministry of Transport and Communication at US$31,000.


Mozambique Ports and Railways has prepared an emergency plan for the rehabilitation of railway infrastructure in the southern part of the country in order to allow the reopening of the Ressano Garcia line to South Africa, the Goba line via Swaziland to South Africa and the Limpopo line to Zimbabwe.

Repairs are also required in the Port of Maputo and on the Salamanga sideline. The estimated cost for the rehabilitation of the southern rail network is US$5.95 million.

Electricity Network

Electricidade de Mocambique - Electricity Mozambique (EDM), the public utility responsible for production, transmission and distribution of electricity within the country, has prepared a preliminary survey report on damaged electricity network due to the floods in the southern grid of the EDM network. As a result, villages such as Xinanvane and Magude have no electricity, thus resorting to the use of generators, partly provided by Italy/OCHA.

Urgent requirements for reconstruction of transmission and distribution lines and the rehabilitation of substations and switching stations have been identified. The estimated cost to repair damages to the electricity network is US$ 4.5 million. The Governments of Denmark and Norway have already indicated their intention to provide assistance..

Resettlement Requirements

The ministry of Public Works and Housing has prepared a survey on damaged urban infrastructure in the cities of Maputo and Matola. New areas for resettlement have been identified, and the sub-division into individual family plots is presently underway. The cost of resettlement requirements is estimated at US$ 3.5 million.

Hydraulic structures and flood management

The Ministry of Public Works and Housing has carried out a survey on damages to hydraulic structures in Maputo and Gaza provinces as well as on flood control survey needs. The cost for repair for hydraulic structures is US$ 4.6 million and the needs in flood control survey are estimated at US$950,000.

Detailed information on infrastructure damage and cost estimates are available at the Ministry of Public Works, the Ministry of Mineral Resources and Energy and the Ministry of Transport and Communications

Annex 4: Coordination Centre International Institute for Disaster Management (INGC)


The Government of Mozambique has set up a coordination centre at the INGC, whose aim is to ensure coordination between the Government, the UN System, international organisations and NGOs. Six coordination desks have been established at the INGC to facilitate this. A UN agency, and an International organisation have kindly agreed to be assigned to each of these desks to support the responsible government department. One representative each of the national Government departments concerned and the sectoral lead agencies mentioned below are manning the sectoral desks every day from 1530 hours to 1730 hours.

1. Food (WFP)

2. Health (WHO)

3. Shelter/accommodation centres/non food (UNDP, IFRCS)

4. Water & sanitation/infrastructure (UNICEF)

5. Transport/customs/communications (DFID)

6. Information (UNDP)

Office hours of the coordination centre: 0800-1800hrs seven days per week (until further notice).

Daily 1100hrs Co-ordination briefing

The daily coordination briefing at 1100 (duration 30minutes) provides update information reports on progress. Each of the desk holds their own sector coordination meetings as appropriate with all organisations involved in that sector. Dates and timing of sector meetings are posted on the Coordination Centre notice board. Information provided to the Centre will be shared and made available to all concerned and integrated into the daily situation reports.

National Government departments invite the humanitarian community (UN, Red Cross, and NGOs) as well as international cooperation partners to attend this meeting.

Daily Agenda

1. Weather forecast

2. Information update on status of flooding/dam situation

3. Update on national relief efforts (Mr. Joao Zamissa, Head of Coordination Centre, INGC)

4. Sector briefings

5. Announcements of financial and/or in-kind donations

Function of the sector desks

It is important that both the Government departments and designated international organisations are represented at the INGC coordination centre:

  • to develop a clear strategy for the sector
  • to identify priorities
  • to resolve problems as they arise
  • to attract donors for specific projects within the sector
There will be a working meeting for heads of desks every evening at 1700hrs at the co-ordination centre.

Issued by: INGC Coordination Centre, Maputo, 17 February 2000

Annex 5: 1997 Census Figures - INE

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit