Economic and Social Council
Item 21 (b) of the provisional list*
Strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance of the United Nations, including special economic assistance: special economic assistance to individual countries or regions
Economic and Social Council
Substantive session of 2002
New York, 1-26 July 2002
Item 5 of the provisional agenda**
Special economic, humanitarian and disaster relief assistance
Assistance to Mozambique
Report of the Secretary-General+
The present report has been prepared pursuant to General Assembly resolution 55/167 of 14 December 2000, in which the Secretary- General was requested to report to the Assembly on the strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian and disaster relief assistance of the United Nations, including special economic assistance, through the Economic and Social Council, in support of the efforts of the Government of Mozambique. This report describes follow-up initiatives undertaken in response to the 2000 floods, preparation for and response to the 2001 floods, and other United Nations assistance init iatives in support of the Government of Mozambique.
1. According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Report, 2001,1 Mozambique’s human development index ranks 157 out of 162 countries.2 The millions of refugees and internally displaced who returned home after the signing of the 1992 General Peace Agreement for Mozambique3 were aided by normal rains that allowed many to re -establish their lives and livelihoods as selfsubsistent farmers. By 1996, the Government had achieved macroeconomic stability, registering an average 10 per cent real annual growth rate in a noninflationary environment. Annual per capita income is currently $210. In real per capita terms, gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 7.5 per cent from 1996 to 2001. Agriculture accounts for approximately 27 per cent of GDP and employs some 70 per cent of the population.
2. The factors underlying the positive evolution in the economy, besides the establishment of peace, are the introduction of a vibrant mu ltiparty democracy and the launching of a programme of economic reform that included a transition from a centralized system towards greater openness and increasing reliance on market mechanisms with a growing role for the private sector.
3. One negative impact of the establishment of peace is reflected in the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), estimated at 12.2 per cent by the year 2000. Ease of travel and recovery of the economy have increased the flows of traffic in the main transport corridors linking Mozambique’s neighbours to each other and to the sea, where the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is higher than the national average. The estimated 2002 infection rate has risen to over 14 per cent.
4. Mozambique is over 2,000 kilometres (km) long and spans tropical and temperate zones, giving it variable weather, so that it is not uncommon to have local floods and droughts in different parts of the country in the same year. Moreover, southern African rainfall is partly governed by the 10-12 year sunspot cycle, leading to periods of major floods and followed by severe droughts. Furthermore, the La Niña phenomenon in the Pacific and Indian oceans has a propensity to bring higher than normal rainfall to Mozambique, wh ile the opposite El Niño tends to cause drought. The year 2000 saw both a sunspot peak and La Niña, and two years of record rainfall and flooding resulted. Global warming appears to be intensifying both droughts and floods.
5. The high vulnerability to climatic changes often has tremendous impact on the people, livestock, property and the physical infrastructure. The operational body responsible for managing natural disasters, the DPCCN (Department for the Prevention and Combat of Natural Disasters), was restructured in 1999 and transformed into the National Institute for Disaster Management (INGC). This is an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. The Government also approved its first national policy on disaster management in 1999.
II. Disaster management: the floods of 2001
A. National emergency response capacity
6. Limited floods in early 1999 in Inhambane province gave INGC some experience in its new role and later that year it ran a major simulation exercis e on flood relief, with support from UNDP and the World Food Programme (WFP), the Fire Brigade, the Police, the Boy Scouts and the Red Cross, all of which later made important contributions in the response to the 2000 floods. INGC also began preparation of rainy season contingency plans for 1999-2000, a process that included the United Nations system in 2000-2001. Thus, INGC and other relevant organizations went into the October-to -March rainy season 1999-2000 with some degree of preparation and readiness.
7. Major floods hit Mozambique two years in succession: in 2000 in the south of the country, and in 2001 in the centre. Each year the number of people displaced by the floods increased slowly, but eventually overwhelmed local capacities. The first flood re ceived worldwide attention with television images of the helicopter rescue of a mother who had given birth to baby Rosita Pedro in a tree. This triggered a torrent of international aid. The flood in 2001 produced less television coverage and less aid, and the United Nations system played an important role in mobilizing and coordinating humanitarian assistance and aid for national reconstruction and development.
8. Mozambique was relatively well prepared, in part owing to a history of previous floods and droughts. International help was crucial, but was effective because the United Nations worked hand in hand with the Mozambican Government. There were hundreds of thousands of people in accommodation centres for several months in both years, but the rates of death, disease and malnutrition were low, particularly in 2000, while 2001 saw some increases in malnutrition and outbreaks of cholera.
9. Two specific features of the response to the flood emergencies were important, particularly in 2000. First, the fact that the United Nations set an example and worked through the Government led to more coordination and less competition among agencies, donors and non-governmental organizations. Second, all aircraft in the relief effort - both civilian and military - were coordinated by a Joint Logistics Operations Centre (JLOC) of a sort previously used only in military relief operations. This was vital, because displaced people were in a large number of centres, many of which could be reached only by air.
10. Mozambique’s Coordinating Council for Disaster Management addresses political issues related to disasters. The Prime Minister, with the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation as his deputy, chairs the Council. Set up in 1980, the Coordinating Council reflected the Government’s recognition and concern that Mozambique is prone to natural disasters, notably flood and drought. After independence in 1975, the new Government had to move quickly to respond to serious floods in 1976, 1977 and 1978 and a major drought in the early 1980s. The other members of the Council are the Ministers of Public Works and Housing, Transport and Communications, Health, Agriculture and Rural Development.
11. It was estimated in 2000 that the floods would result in a 2 percentage point decrease of the expected GDP growth, bringing it down to 8 per cent. However, the impact of the floods on industry, minerals, energy, transport and communications was grossly underestimated, and the economy grew by only 2.1 per cent. With regard to inflation, shortages, and transport, bottlenecks pushed inflation up to 11.4 per cent from the 3 per cent level before the floods.
B. United Nations disaster management structures
12. For well over a decade, Mozambique suffered what was called a complex emergency resulting from civil conflict and compounded by drought, in which millions of people were displaced and needed food and other assistance. While Mozambique became one of the most aid -dependent countries in the world, it also developed considerable skills in the administration and management of aid and in working with displaced people. In the United Nations system, the Country Management Team (UNCMT) agreed that WFP should be the lead United Nations agency in Mozambique for disaster management. In this capacity, WFP worked closely with the Government and other partners in the preparation of the INGC statutes and the new policy document. During the normal course of the year, the United Nations Disaster Management Theme Group (UNDMTG) coordinates inter-agency development activities related to disaster management training and preparedness. The Chair of UNDMTG (WFP) briefs UNCMT on disaster preparedness throughout the year.
13. The United Nations Inter-Agency Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan for Mozambique clarifies the role of the United Nations Resident Coordinator during natural disasters. In these cases, the Resident Coordinator acts on behalf of the Emergency Relief Coordinator/Under-Secretary -General for Humanitarian Affairs in New York. On a day-to -day basis, the Resident Coordinator reports to the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Geneva with regard to operations, finance, appeal and donor coordination. It consists of heads of agencies, agency focal points, disaster preparedness off icers and staff members with related responsibilities, as well as representatives of INGC, the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, LINK NGO Forum in Mozambique, donors and the Mozambique Red Cross.
14. Drawing on experience from 2000, WFP and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) staff initially facilitated field coordination in 2001. For the duration of the emergency operations programme, the United Nations Resident Coordinator’s Office (UNRCO), with assistance from the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, set up an Emergency Coordination Unit composed of an emergency coordination adviser, a data/information management officer, a communications officer and a media and public relations officer. In addition, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs provided funds to postemergency coordinators to assist the operations in Beira, Quelimane, Caia, Chimoio and Tete.
15. The United Nations Inter-Agency Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan for Mozambique clarifies the role during natural disasters of the United Nations Resident Coordinator, who acts on behalf of the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Emergency Relief Coordinator and Under- Secretary -General for Humanitarian Affairs in New York. On a day-to -day basis, the Resident Coordinator reports to the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Geneva with regard to operations, finance, appeals and donor coordination. During the rainy season, in agreement with and at the request of the Government, the United Nations system in Mozambique, with direct assistance from the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, places emergency staff in INGC to support the offices of coordination, logistics and communications, information and media. These United Nations staff have helped set up the On -Site Operations Coordination Centre (OSOCC) and the Joint Logistics Operations Centre (JLOC) with the Government and ensure that all partners generate and use the latest information needed to respond effectively.
C. 2001 preparations
16. Preparation for the 2000-2001 rainy season began with a seminar whose purpose was to draw lessons from the flood relief operations in the south of the country in 2000. Soon after, the Southern Africa Regional Outlook Forum (SARCOF) issued its forecast in September 2000 of higher-than-normal rainfall, particularly in the central region of Mozambique. The next step was to prepare a national contingency plan on the basis of possible flood and cyclone scenarios. The preparation of the contingency plan was coordinated among United Nations agencies, INGC and the Mozambique Red Cross, and working groups were set up to plan for specific sector activities and preparations. A mu ltisectoral task force visited provinces to update information about areas at risk and the resources available for emergency response.
17. By December 2000, WFP had pre -positioned 4,500 tons of mixed food commodities in 15 districts in Tete, Sofala and Manica provinces, as well as in Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo provinces. WFP had a stock of 600 tons of mixed commodities in Quelimane, Zambezia province, that would be available in case of emergency. Rubber boats and fuel containers were prepositioned in various places judged to be at risk in Inhambane, Manica, Sofala, Tete and Zambezia provinces. UNICEF pre -positioned water, sanitation, education and health supplies in Beira, Quelimane and Caia and, as an additional precaution, in Inhambane and Xai-Xai. It als o provided technical assistance to the provincial directorates of health, education and public works in Sofala and Zambezia provinces to carry out assessments in areas vulnerable to flooding and to finalize the provincial emergency contingency plans.
D. The 2001 floods
18. The Government, with assistance from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), organized a special Reconstruction Conference in Rome on 3 and 4 May 2000, even before all the displaced from the 2000 floods had returned home. Donors pledged $453 million in support of the Government’s 2000 Reconstruction Programme. By September 2000, while relief supplies were still going to victims of the floods, the region’s meteorologists forecast a heavy rainy season for central Mozambique. Crops had already been lost, and WFP was still feeding 150,000 people. Government teams visited the areas at risk to warn residents and plan for the emergency. The Red Cross again trained volunteers in the area at risk. Based on lessons learned from 2000, the Mozambique Red Cross pre -positioned relief stocks such as kitchen sets, tents and mosquito nets, as well as items such as fishing nets that could be used by people in accommodation centres. The seven Red Cross organizations that came to assist in 2000 signed bilateral agreements with the Mozambique Red Cross and stayed on to help with rehabilitation. They were able to move quickly when the new floods threatened, drawing on stocks and funds from their own national headquarters.
19. As forecast, the heavy rains came, affecting the entire Zambezi River basin in four countries. The first flooding in Mozambique occurred on 3 January in Zumbo district, Tete province, because heavy rain in Zambia had forced the authorities at the Kariba dam, between Zimbabwe and Zambia, to release water. The Cahora Bassa dam was still able to store water and prevent flooding downstream. However, heavy rain during the week of 8-14 February caused the Zambezi River to rise above flood level in several districts of four provinces in the lower Zambezi valley, with peak water 2.6 metres (m) above flood level. This flood was very different from the one the year before. In 2000, there had been four flood peaks; in 2001, the two big dams on the Zambezi (the Cahora Bassa in Mozambique and the Kariba between Zimbabwe and Zambia) coordinated their discharges so that the flood level stayed relatively stable for three months. The Zambezi valley is less densely populated than the Limpopo and has steeper sides; many people already had their houses above the flood level but their fields were situated below in the river basins.
20. It was estimated that 79,500 hectares of food crops were lost, as well as some 2,000 cattle, 6,400 pigs, 26,000 small livestock and about 300,000 head of poultry. Damage in education included the destruction of 183 lower primary schools, affecting 52,300 pupils. The health network was severely affected, with 40 health-care units damaged, including 31 health posts, 12 health centres, 1 rural hospital and 1 drug depot. Furniture, equipment, medicines and medical materials were totally destroyed.
21. The water supply was seriously affected, with the loss of 345 wells, 321 boreholes and 7 small water supply systems. Much of the road network was damaged and emergency repairs were estimated at some $25 million, including bridge repairs and the opening of alternative routes.
22. The levels of other rivers in central Mozambique fluctuated in the period from January to late April. There was some localized flooding on the Pungóè, Buzi and Save Rivers, with people displaced in Buzi and Nhamatanda districts in Sofala province and Sussundenga district in Manica province. The main road west from the port city of Beira in Sofala province was closed three times along a stretch of 10 km between February and April because of flooding on the Pungóè River. The Muari River flooded in February and closed the main national highway (EN1), creating a serious logistics bottleneck.
23. In response to the disaster, the Government mobilized all resources and personnel to mitigate its impact. It immediately set in motion the prevention and response mechanisms contained in its contingency plan, prepared in partnership with the United Nations, donors and non-governmental organizations. The Government dispatched a group of navy personnel to Zumbo and Mutarara in Tete Province to conduct rescue and evacuation of people at risk. In addition, technicians posted by the maritime administration were operating in Mopeia, in Zambezia province, and Caia, in Sofala province, assisted by a navy platoon and sailors trained locally.
24. In February and early March, many people in the Zambezi valley declined offers of evacuation, despite the rising water. Although their fields were by then under water, their houses were secure , they had brought their livestock near their homes, and they had food stocks. As a result, they chose to remain where they were. However, the water stayed high for so long that families began to run out of food stocks, prompting them to move in search of assistance at the temporary accommodation centres. By 21 March, 500-700 people a day were reported to be arriving at the centres. In mid-May, there were still 219,778 displaced people in 65 temporary centres, although the total population affected by the floods numbered 566,492. Because the Zambezi River remained so high for over two months, the displaced people stayed in the camps much longer than in the 2000 emergency. By May 2000, 90 per cent of the displaced population were able to return home.
25. Given the impact of the floods on road communications, the Government boosted the efforts of the Mozambique armed forces, which were operating with one military helicopter, and chartering commercial aircraft to transport humanitarian assistance. A second Mozambican military helicopter was later mobilized to serve the humanitarian operations. INGC recorded a total of 7,133 people rescued by boats and aircraft in the four provinces, compared with at least 45,000 rescued in the southern provinces in 2000. The roads in the Zambezi valley are nearly all dirt, and had long since turned to mud. Airlifts provided the only means to get food to people, and at the peak there were 20 aircraft. Again there was a JLOC, this time based in Beira, which was the centre of operations for rescue and relief in Sofala province and in the parts of Manica, Tete and Zambezia provinces lying in the Zambezi valley. A staging post was established at Caia, on the south bank of the Zambezi in Sofala province. Caia, approximately 200 km north of Beira, has a tarred landing strip that is above historic flood levels, and warehouse space. Quelimane was the base for operations in Zambezia province.
26. By May, there were 230,000 people in 65 centres. The Ministry of Health reported "severe nutritional problems" in some centres, and there was some cholera in the areas outside the accommodation centres. Overall, however, health levels remained reasonable.
27. The conditions in the centre of the country in 2001 did not provide the dramatic air rescues witnessed in 2000 and Mozambique already had the $453 million pledged for 2000 reconstruction efforts. The Government appealed for an additional US$ 30 million in aid to fund the relief and rescue operations in the central region. A July 2001 report from INGC indicates total donations against the appeal were US$ 31 million.
28. A notable difference between the 2000 and 2001 floods is the demographic and topographic diversity between the two regions affected. While whole communities, including members of the local government, had been displaced in the more densely populated southern region of the country in 2000, this was not the case in the centre in 2001, where the population is much more dispersed. In 2000, the displaced local officials had managed the accommodation centres, a task that was taken up by non-governmental organizations in 2001.
III. The United Nations response
29. One of the significant roles played by the United Nations in the preparedness and response to the 2001 floods was that of coordination. Not only had a United Nations Cyclones and Floods Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan been finalized by the United Nations system in collaboration with INGC, but the Resident Coordinator with INGC called weekly United Nations Disaster Management Team (UNDMT) meetings where over 50 emergency specialists from government, donors, non-governmental organizations and the United Nations gathered to share information and raise issues of immediate concern. Weather forecasts, maps, river and dam levels, displaced population locations, transport of goods and services, accommodation, water and sanitation, health, education, HIV/AIDS precautions, use of air and land assets and joint field assessment missions with government, the United Nations, donors and nongovernmental organizations, were all discussed, with emerging issues being brought back to working groups. Minutes, weather and river-level alerts, maps, data, and other important information were disseminated regularly through a UNDMT e-mail list. Emergency 24-hour contacts were established within the organizations of all partners.
30. Additionally, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs-funded Emergency Unit in the Office of the Resident Coordinator was regarded by government as highly effective. It assisted in overall coordination at the national level, the placement of emergency staff at INGC, and securing field operations throughout the four affected provinces, especially at the operations hub at the Beira airport. The Emergency Unit Coordinator led a team of professional staff in: (a) communications: they worked under the leadership of WFP, which secured emergency radio frequencies with government for all emergency field operations, and distributed or installed radio equipment at key locations throughout the four provinces including two receivers for JLOC and field staff at the Beira airport and mobile units to assist information-gathering and goods deliveries at accommodation centres; (b) datagathering: a mapping centre was hosted by WFP which issued latest locations of displaced, flooded areas, and forecasts of flooding, and established a database of accommodation centres including data on population, needs, deliveries; this database was used daily by the INGC and JLOC coordination team; and (c) public information: by working together with all agencies and partners, the information officer was able to gather and verify important flood updates and issue situation reports for national and international dissemination. The United Nations web site also was used to post the latest weather, river levels, maps, and United Nations and partner reports.
31. Another important aspect of United Nations assistance was the use of United Nations Volunteers to assist in the emergency response. United Nations agencies were able to release their volunteers who then played a key role in the immediate recruitment and placement of needed staff in key areas. Volunteers assisted in data collection and processing, and food and non-food item distribution, and aided coordination teams in Maputo, Beira, Quelimane, Caia, Tete, and Chimoio.
B. Relief and rescue assets
32. In 2000, the international response to the floods in southern Mozambique was overwhelming. There was huge international fund-raising and many participating volunteers and non-governmental organizations. Eleven different air forces provided aircraft, in addition to those hired privately. At the peak, there were 56 aircraft in operation and more than 1,000 foreign military personnel. There were also some 200 boats donated or lent to Mozambique.
33. The conditions in the 2001 floods were very different. The centre of the country is less accessible than the south. Many of the roads are beaten earth, which turns into mud in the rainy season. Mozambique provided two military MI-8 helicopters, while INGC chartered commercial aircraft. The Department for International Development (DFID) (United Kingdom) funded the charter of helicopters to operate from Beira and Quelimane. WFP and UNICEF also hired helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft to transport relief goods and to conduct assessments. A contingent of Portuguese Civil Protection brought 10 boats, which were based in Marromeu district for the evacuation of people and the delivery of supplies. In addition, some of the boats donated in 2000 were positioned in areas at risk from floods before the onset of the rainy season. The South African Air Force sent a fleet of seven aircraft to take part in rescue and evacuation operations. The four South African helicopters and three fixed-wing aircraft completed their mission and returned to South Africa on 15 March.
C. Food supplies
34. Whereas WFP had distributed 12,000 tons of food (mostly maize, but also beans, oil, sugar, salt and highenergy biscuits) to 590,000 beneficiaries located at 259 different sites in five provinces in 2000, by the end of May 2001, WFP had distributed 8,000 tons of mixed food commodities to 230,000 displaced people in 65 temporary centres in four provinces.
D. Water and sanitation
35. UNICEF provided coordination and resource support to the Government and local and international non-governmental organizations to ensure access to safe water, hygiene and sanitation in the accommodation centres, during the emergency in both 2000 and 2001. To reduce vulnerability to cholera and diarrhoeal diseases, UNICEF trained non -governmental organization activists to work in camps and accommodation centres to teach people about hygiene and sanitation in crowded conditions. UNICEF purchased buckets and soap, and distributed latrine slabs, water purification powder and packets of oral rehydration salts.
36. Following the floods in 2000, UNICEF had helped with rehabilitating water and sanitation systems in two cities, Chokwe and Xai-Xai, in Gaza province. No comparable damage was done in the centre of the country in 2001, because the area is more sparsely populated with less infrastructure. UNICEF activities in providing water and sanitation for people in temporary centres were much better coordinated in 2001 because of experience gained in the previous year. Temporary emergency staff were contracted more quickly and the UNICEF regular programme in water and sanitation has an emergency component, meaning that preparedness is part of its normal programme.
E. Health and education
37. Malaria can be a serious problem among populations displaced by floods because of the proliferation of mosquito -breeding sites, together with a reduction in immunity levels caused by inadequate nutritio n and increased stress. To slow the increase of malaria cases, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF provided technical support and supplies for intensified malaria control activities, including spraying, health education and the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets and malaria drugs. Drugs were provided in 2001 to treat 1 million people.
38. UNICEF supported vitamin A supplementation and vaccination campaigns against measles, meningitis and neonatal tetanus by giving technical assistance to the Ministry of Health and supplying vitamin A, vaccines, auto-destruct needles and syringes, cold chain equipment, and transportation.
39. In 2000 and 2001, WHO brought teams of specialists to help the Ministry of Health conduct rapid needs assessment and work on malaria, health education, and mental health plans. WHO also supplied cholera drugs and emergency drug kits. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) conducted surveys of pregnant women and lactating mothers and provided needed goods for female and baby protection and prevention of disease, especially water-related infections. HIV/AIDS was also considered a major risk for the accommodation centre transient populations, and condoms and information were distributed.
40. The Government stressed the importance of children’s returning to school as quickly as possible. UNICEF and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) worked together in conducting rapid needs assessment. In 2001, UNICEF supported the Ministry of Education in the distribution of 60,294 school kits, as well as family kits for affected teachers. In both years, UNICEF provided large tents to serve as temporary classrooms.
41. In 2001, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs funded the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to help the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development set up an emergency coordination unit (UCEA). Technical support from FAO to UCEA allowed the preparation of weekly estimates of the number of affected households and the crop areas lost. FAO also coordinated the distribution of some 80,000 kits of seeds and tools to enable households to plant second -season crops in the four affected provinces.
G. Shelter, accommodation centres and non-food relief items
42. In 2000, UNDP supported the Government in its coordination function on shelter and acted as the focal point for the working group on shelter. The group brought together representatives from the Government, national and international non-governmental organizations, donors and other United Nations agencies. The working group became a forum for discussions on strategic aspects of the resettlement process. Guidelines for resettlement were developed, which were issued jointly by the Government and the United Nations. A senior staff member of the country office was designated to lead the group. UNDP continued its role in 2001 and developed closer coordination with the Mozambique Red Cross, which has a presence in all districts, as well as the Ministry of Public Works and Housing.
IV. Future preparedness Learning from experience
43. A workshop funded by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs was held in Beira in July 2001 to analyse the response to the floods in 2001 and draw lessons for improving preparedness in the future. The workshop was convened by government, and representatives from the United Nations, donors, and non-governmental organizations discussed four broad areas:
- Coordination, data-gathering and processing, the press, training and response
- Logistics, communication and food security
- Health, water supply, sanitation and shelter
- Warnings, public awareness, education and resettlement.
44. With regard to coordination, the group recommended a review of the terms of reference related to the composition, frequency and purpose of emergency coordination working group meetings. It further recommended even greater integration of activities by government, the United Nations and non -governmental organizations and of needed regional coordination.
45. The group stressed that assessments should be multidisciplinary and multi-partner and with established terms of reference under government leadership. A schedule of assessments should be set to gather baseline data to avoid duplication. The information management database must be further improved and utilized by all partners to avoid conflicting information that may lead to inappropriate response.
46. With regard to public information, information should be validated and released by INGC with the assistance of partners.
47. An enhanced training programme should be established for those responsible for emergency personnel.
48. In terms of logistics, communications and food security, the group noted inefficient use of the few communications facilities available. It recommended the establishment of local committees to process and analyse information to be transmitted through identified channels. The persons or organizations responsible should also be identified. With regard to local institutions and authorities, the group suggested that nongovernmental organizations develop partnerships aimed at capacity-building in communications.
49. In relation to food security, the group recommended that care be taken to ensure that the quality and quantity of seed and tool kits were appropriate for the conditions in each district, in order to facilitate the timely delivery to beneficiaries. It further suggested that efforts be made to improve coping mechanisms among local communities in times of disaster.
50. With regard to health, water supply, sanitation and shelter, the group recommended joint planning of activities by government, the United Nations and nongovernmental organizations to establish areas of intervention, with priority for the creation of basic sanitation and related training.
51. In terms of shelter, the group recommended the improvement in management of shelter materials, and suggested that donors provide better-quality tents.
52. In relation to the National Contingency Plan itself, the group recommended that it be revised to allow broad dissemination at all levels. Moreover, the Contingency Plan should involve the municipalities and local communities, as well as the provincial and district authorities, and its implementation should be evaluated to ensure that needed improvements were accommodated.
53. As for warnings, public awareness and community education, the group was pleased to note the success in warning local communities, thanks to widespread public awareness activities in the provinces and districts at risk from cyclones and floods. However, it recommended continuous training, particularly in mechanisms for the dissemination of messages at the district level. Short -term warnings of floods can be issued on the basis of rainfall and riverlevel monitoring, supported by limited computer models. And what do people do with medium-term warnings? Impoverished populations must make careful choices regarding how much to spend on preparation and when to abandon their possessions. In flat areas, like the Limpopo, that did not leave families sufficient time to plan their evacuation, many families were afraid to abandon cattle and goats, and a significant number of the 700 who had died in 2000 might have been family members left behind to tend animals. Improved warning systems, perhaps involving local leaders with radios or mobile telephones, are being discussed. This would allow people to be given clearer and more timely warnings before the water levels become critical.
54. With regard to resettlement, the group called for more expeditiously released and decentralized resources. Resettlement should be regarded as a key component in vulnerability reduction in areas at risk from floods, allowing active participation by the local communities. Moreover, the provincial governments should play a leading role in resettlement.
55. The National Meteorological Institute (INAM) stressed the importance of meteorological information; however, the public needed help in understanding the language of weather forecasting.
56. The Mozambican Air Force commented on the poor coordination of air assets in the relief operations, calling on non-governmental organizations to be more flexible with regard to tasking their aircraft.
57. The INGC director voiced his concern about the need for more community education initiatives for disasters. Voluntary work among communities is being encouraged which could have a multiplier effect.
58. Preparedness measures also raise questions. Having stocks in place had proved useful in 2000 and was particularly important in 2001. Indeed, one of the most important lessons learned from these floods is the importance of stocks that can be drawn on quickly in case of emergency; however, maintaining stocks is expensive and difficult. The risk is that emergency reserve stocks of food, fuel and vehicles often spoil or are stolen or sold. Disasters are costly in terms of money and lives, and preparation is expensive in terms of human and financial resources .
59. The Government of Mozambique appealed for $449.5 million at the International Reconstruction Conference, held in Rome on 3 and 4 May 2000. Before presenting the post-emergency reconstruction programme for 2001 at a Conference in Maputo in July, the Mozambican Planning and Finance Minister noted that just over a year after the Rome Conference, funding of some $471 million had been confirmed, including $52 million for the private sector. This was the first time Mozambique’s international partners had agreed to finance the reconstruction of disaster damage in the private sector. The sectors for which funds had been requested were the social services, infrastructure, the economy, resettlement and vulnerability reduction.
60. Resettle ment of the displaced population was one of the main objectives of the reconstruction programme presented to the international community at the 2001 Reconstruction Conference. This reconstruction programme contains four main components. The first covers the social sectors, including reconstruction in education, health, and culture and sports facilities, totalling $36.4 million. The second component includes the rehabilitation of public infrastructure and activities needed to facilitate resettlement, such as urbanization, house-building and the acquisition of kits of building materials, totalling $51.8 million. The third component is the productive sector, where the State is responsible for part of the reconstruction together with the private sector. The estimated costs were $23.5 million, of which $3.5 million was for the private sector. The fourth component covers a series of activities aimed at improving capacity to forecast and prevent natural disasters, so that the negative impact of future events may be reduced. It also includes the construction or rehabilitation of dykes and refuge platforms, giving this component a total cost of $20.3 million. The four components of the 2001 post-emergency reconstruction programme amounted to a total of $132 million, and were fully supported by donors. Its implementation is currently under way.
A. Social sectors
61. In education, completed flood reconstruction included the construction or rehabilitation of 499 classrooms and 64 houses for teachers. In addition, construction of 380 more classrooms has begun and school materials have been distributed, including 2,180 double desks. Rehabilitation is finished on the building of the Gaza Provincial Directorate of Culture, the Mozambique National Library and the Sofala Culture House.
62. Activities in the health sector began with consulting contracts to conduct a detailed survey of the epidemiological and nutritional situation of the population in the flood-affected areas. Moreover, vehicles and drugs were purchased and nongovernmental organizations began construction or rehabilitation of 43 health units, 35 of which are complete.
63. The main activities relating to women and social welfare have focused on family reunification and the rehabilitation of buildings, specifically the Gaza Provincial Directorate, the Dom Bosco Orphanage in Maputo, and the District Directorates in Inharrime and Mabote, and the construction of the Gaza Commission for Social Reintegration.
64. Infrastructure rehabilitation has been completed on roads and bridges, water and sanitation, transport and communications, energy and public buildings. The rehabilitation work completed includes stretches of the main north-south highway (EN1), the access roads to the city of Xai-Xai, EN2 and EN254, and numerous tertiary roads.
65. Significant work has been undertaken in water and sanitation, including the construction of 14 small piped water systems, 211 water points in various parts of the affected provinces, boreholes with pumps and a feeder pipe in Xai-Xai, as well as 12 new standpipes. A detailed survey of the damage caused to water supply systems and for the rehabilitation of 28 small water supply systems is under way. In addition, specifications have been prepared for the bidding on the rehabilitation of some sections of the drainage and sanitation systems in Maputo, Matola and Beira.
66. Emergency work was undertaken in the transport and communications sector which has included the rehabilitation of railway bridges and the repair of railway lines and communications and traffic support systems in the transport corridors. This work has allowed traffic to be restored on the Limpopo, Ressano Garcia and Goba lines, and the Salamanga spur.
67. The most notable work in the energy sector is the rehabilitation of pylons in order to restore electricity supplies to Maputo and Matola, and the towns of Manhiça and Sabie, as well as the replacement of medium- and low-voltage systems in Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane, Sofala and Manica provinces. This work began in April 2001 and is due for completion in 2002.
68. The rehabilitation of public buildings, specifically in the justice and State administration sectors, has included contracts awarded for the rehabilitation of the Xai-Xai prison and the district prisons in Bilene-Macia and Guijá and of the services registry in Guijá in Gaza province. A contract has also been awarded for the fencing, electrification and installation of a generator at the Mabalane prison farm. In other public administration structures, work is complete on 46 buildings of the 115 under rehabilitation, including district and administrative post headquarters in Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane and Sofala provinces.
C. Economic sector
69. Seeds and tools have been acquired in order to encourage the resumption of farming in the family farming sector. Another important activity was restocking of cattle, goats and poultry, and the importation of drugs, vaccines and other material specifically required in the veterinary sector. Livestock infrastructure, including laboratories, has been rehabilitated and training programmes have been undertaken.
70. Many of the efforts in industry and commerce have been directed at the private sector for the purpose of obtaining financial support to allow the resumption of business activities. It should be noted that assistance for the private sector was estimated at $77.7 million, of which $52 million was confirmed and $32 million disbursed by July 2001. The sum of $22 million was for credit, while $10 million was dis tributed directly to households in the flood-affected areas. Just $7.4 million of credit had been authorized because of constraints on the credit processes, mainly relating to the lack of guarantees to meet banking requirements, coupled with existing bad debts to the banks which made some businesses ineligible for new credit. Some potential borrowers have also complained of delays in the evaluation of guarantees offered.
71. Eighty-eight boats were distributed among fishermen in Gaza, Inhambane and Sofala provinces, as well as net-making kits and boat repair materials. Nearly 1,000 fishermen have benefited from this assistance to re -establish their livelihoods.
72. To facilitate the process of resettling the households displaced by the floods, the Government prepared a manual of guidelines, in collaboration with its cooperating partners. About one year after the process began, nearly 43,000 households had been resettled, with plots demarcated and 17,000 houses built. Building kits were also distributed and, where appropriate, municipalities are working on urbanization plans.
D. 2002 status and regional initiatives
73. In accordance with the 2002 United Nations Inter-Agency Emergency Preparedness and Response Plan for Floods, Cyclones and Drought, a United Nations Emergency Liaison Officer was recruited and funded by the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. While the Plan considered three different scenarios - floods, cyclones, drought - the general perception at the beginning of 2002 was that there were going to be renewed floods, after abovenormal rainfalls in the period from October through December. The rains did stop, however, in January and gradually the threat of floods decreased, whereas the consequences of a prolonged dry spell became increasingly evident over the following months.
74. On behalf of the Resident Coordinator, the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs raised funds in support of the Request to Support the United Nations Disaster Response Capacity in Mozambique. At the end of April, the Office was able to confirm the allocation of the US$ 177,620 supporting the Emergency Unit to February 2003.
75. Office space has been identified at INGC, where the United Nations Emergency Unit will move next to the INGC German-funded capacity-building project. The goal is to make the Emergency Unit a humanitarian information and coordination centre and to produce a biweekly United Nations/INGC newsletter/situation report with contributions from other partners. A Database and Information Officer is in the process of being recruited for the Emergency Unit to ensure data collection and dissemination, in collaboration with other partners such as the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWSNET) and WFP/Vulnerability and Mapping Un it (VAM).
76. The main tasks of the Emergency Unit to date have been to follow up on developments within the different types of disaster scenarios and ensure progress on United Nations contingency plans. A review of the INGC preparedness level in the provinces was planned together with INGC.
77. Other preparedness initiatives include: liaison and information-sharing with the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs offices in Gaborone and Geneva; liaison with key actors within the United Nations, INGC, donors, non-governmental organizations and the Red Cross; support for the United Nations Disaster Management Team Working Group (DMTWG); activation of the United Nations Emergency Focal Points’ Groups; and preparation of documents and country presentations in relation to humanitarian issues.
78. Of growing concern is the humanitarian food crisis in the southern Africa region. WFP/FAO led a food and crop assessment in April and May 2002. WFP/FAO led a joint food and crop supply assessment mission in April and May 2002. The United Nations Country Team participated in the joint Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs/WFP Regional Meeting on Humanitarian Needs in Southern Africa, which took place in June 2002. The objective of these assessments is to complement information provided by the food and crop assessment reports to be published by FAO/WFP in June to provide a global overview of the vulnerability in Mozambique and to ensure monitoring and timely sharing of information as the crisis deve lops.
VI. Other United Nations assistance initiatives: supporting the United Nations Millennium Declaration
A. Achieving millennium development goals: reducing extreme poverty - status and trends
79. Despite the 2000 and 2001 floods, the United Nations was able to conduct its Common Country Assessment (CCA), together with government and partners, resulting in a full partnership workshop convened by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation in September 2000 and publication in November 2000. The CCA produced an in -depth analysis of key development issues and consensus with partners on needed focus areas of assistance during the 2002-2006 programme cycle. Identification of the comparative advantages of the United Nations system led to the consultative process by which the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) was formulated.
80. The UNDAF is guided by the United Nations Millennium Declaration4 and its global development goals, and based on the findings of the CCA and four strategic programming areas agreed upon with Government and partners. Using a rights-based approach in both the CCA analysis and the UNDAF, 2002-2006, common United Nations strategic objectives fully support the National Poverty Reduction Plan (PARPA) and are complementary to the World Bank’s Country Assistance Strategy (CAS). The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and all resident United Nations agencies signed the UNDAF in April 2001.
81. The objective of reducing poverty from 70 per cent in 1997 to below 60 per cent in 2005 and to 50 per cent by 2010 constitutes a major challenge for Mozambique during the next decade. The overall objective as stated in PARPA is to reduce poverty by about 30 per cent over the 13-year period 1997-2010.
82. In order to reach the stated target of 50 per cent by 2010, Mozambique’s economy would need to grow at an ambitious average annual rate of 8 per cent. There is reason to be cautiously optimistic about the country’s ability to sustain such growth trends. Between 1996 and 1999, real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 10 per cent as a result of the transition to peace, favourable climatic conditions and the economic liberalization process. In 2000, however, the growth rate was just over 2 per cent.
83. The goal set for poverty reduction would be conservative if the high growth rates projected by PARPA were achieved. Owing to limited information on actual distribution of the wealth generated by recent growth, it is difficult to evaluate this objective. The linkages between growth and poverty reduction need to be elaborated further. Macroeconomic performance was set back in 2000 and 2001 mainly because of the severe floods. The floods clearly illustrated the degree of Mozambique’s vulnerability to external shocks and the fragility of its emerging economy.
84. Although the Government of Mozambique is committed to reducing the incidence of poverty to below 50 per cent by 2010, there is no reliable information regarding the incidence of poverty in 1990 based on which a precise 2015 target might be ascertained. However, the current target implies a 2½ percentage point annual reduction in the incidence of poverty, and the concomitant 2015 target is situated in the region of 44 per cent. Regarding the 1990 level of poverty incidence, the effects of the protracted civil war that plagued the country throughout the 1980s suggest that the situation may have been markedly worse in 1990 than it was in 1996-1997 when the first Household Survey was conducted.
B. Halting and reversing the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015
85. HIV prevalence rates increased drastically after the 1992 General Peace Agreement, in particular in the central and southern regions of the country. This is believed to have been due partly to (a) the heavy presence of armed forces along the Beira corridor during the civil war; (b) the large number of refugees returning from neighbouring countries with high HIV prevalence rates and resettling in the central region and (c) mobility of people along the central and southern development corridors. In 1992, the HIV prevalence rate among adults (15-49 years of age) was estimated at 3.3 per cent and by the end of 2000 it had risen to 12.2 per cent, with 500 new infections occurring daily. In 2000, 1.1 million people were estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS and there were at least 60,000 new maternal orphans. It is projected that, by the year 2010, the epidemic will have lowered the life expectancy rate from 50.3 to 36.5 years, unless the trend of the epidemic is drastically inverted. Over 57 per cent of the Mozambican adults living with HIV are women.
86. If significant efforts and resources are invested in the prevention of HIV transmission and the care and treatment of people living with HIV, the country will be able to reach its millennium development target. Projections based on the latest data show that incidence among adults (15-49 years of age) could reach 16.3 per cent by 2010. The Government of Mozambique recognizes that the spread of HIV/AIDS cannot be halted or reversed without a comprehensive response, which includes prevention, care, support and treatment. This position was reaffirmed through the country’s endorsement of the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS5 adopted by the General Assembly at its special session on HIV/AIDS. Approved in 2000, the National Strategic Plan (2001-2003) outlines the following priorities: (a) prevention activities to focus on young people and the highly mobile population and their sexual partners; (b) improvement in the quality and coverage of VCT (voluntary counselling and testing), care and treatment; (c) impact reduction through support to activities aimed at people living with AIDS and children affected by AIDS; and (d) focus on the development corridors.
C. Hunger and food security
87. Mozambique has made impressive gains in restoring food production since 1992. The production of basic staples, notably maize, has increased with concomitant reductions in the levels of food aid needed to meet the country’s food requirements. At an aggregate national level, the country is currently virtually self-sufficient in terms of food grain production, with the exception of wheat and rice. This growth, however, has been uneven regionally and masks widening disparities between urban and rural areas in terms of levels of poverty and food insecurity. Moreover, this growth has often not been matched by nutritional improvements.
88. Although the recorded rates of malnutrition have fallen over the last decade, the food security situation for large sections o f the population remains precarious. It is estimated that more than two thirds of the Mozambican population of 17.0 million people are living below the poverty line. There is a greater incidence of poverty in rural areas (70 per cent) where 80 per cent of the population lives, compared with 62 per cent in urban areas. While farmers constitute two thirds of the population, they produce only one third of the country’s economic output. Of the 3.6 million families living in Mozambique, 3.2 million derive their livelihood from agriculture. With little income coming from off-farm sources in rural areas, per capita rural incomes are nearer to US$ 100 than to the average US$ 210 per person. Low incomes are a primary cause of both chronic and acute food insecurity fo r many families. All but 5 per cent of Mozambique’s farming households live on landholdings of less than three hectares, which is the upper limit of land area that can be cultivated with manual labour using simple hand tools. Staple food production, the mainstay of the subsistence family sector, is subject to wide variation owing to climatic uncertainty, leading to seasonal movements in availability and prices, with a concomitant impact on marketing opportunities and income-generation. Livestock production is low owing to tsetse fly infestation and is compounded by poor animal husbandry. Labour constraints at the household level have been compounded by the impact of HIV/AIDS and the seasonal upsurge in malaria, diarrhoea and other parasitic diseases and by underlying long-term micronutrient deficiencies.
89. Nutritional data indicate that protein -energy malnutrition, iron deficiency anaemia, goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders, vitamin A deficiency, and cassava intoxication constitute serious public-health problems. There is a high dependence on a few staple foods, which cover a large proportion of people’s energy needs, with lack of diversity in the diet being a major problem. These problems are further aggravated by natural disasters such as drought and flood which constitute another important cause of transitory food insecurity.
D. Achieving universal access to primary education by 2015
90. The primary education system in Mozambique is divided into two cycles: a lower level, EP1, spanning five years; and the two -year upper level, EP2. Although access to primary education has increased considerably in recent years, statistics from 1999 indicate that Mozambique will not achieve the goal of full primary enrolment by 2015. The net enrolment rate fro m 1997 to 1999 increased from 38.5 to 43.6 per cent. Over the same period, enrolment of girls also rose from 34.1 to 39.8 per cent and enrolment of boys from 42.9 to 47.4 per cent. Gross enrolment rates also revealed a tendency to rise, from 68.2 per cent in 1997 to 75.6 per cent in 1999 (from 56.7 to 64.8 per cent for girls and from 79.7 to 86.3 per cent for boys). Geographical location and sex show disparities in access to schooling. Northern and central provinces, rural areas and girls are absolutely and relatively worse off. Access is mainly limited by the supply of places in the system and by the overall poverty situation.
91. Access, however, is only one of the relevant indicators. In 1999, most EP1 pupils attended only one shift, instead of a full school day, and this has a direct impact on repetition rates. The average number of years spent at the first level of primary education (EP1) was, instead of the planned 5 years, recorded as 12.7 for boys and 13.8 for girls. Levels of repetition have remained unchanged during the last 13 years, showing that an average of 25 per cent of EP1 students in Mozambique repeat one or more school years. Repetition often leads to dropout rates (8 per cent), resulting in continued illiteracy rates.
92. For EP1, the pupil-to -classroom ratio was 46.9 and the pupil-to -teacher ratio 62.2. The latter is expected to worsen in the next decade owing to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. For the first decade of 2000, the country will face losses of 17 per cent of its education personnel (teachers, headmasters and managers of the education system) from the effects of HIV/AIDS.
93. The country’s vulnerability to natural disasters is another factor influencing access to primary education. The two major floods in 2000 and 2001 affected access rates in the southern and central regions of the country.
94. The country faces illiteracy rates above 60 per cent, varying in severity according to geography and sex. Considering that Mozambique in 1975 had an illiteracy rate of 97 per cent, considerable progress has been achieved in the past 25 years. The use of Portuguese as the sole medium of instruction, an inadequate curriculum, overcrowded classrooms, the insufficient number of adequately trained teachers and high dropout rates are all contributing facto rs to high levels of illiteracy.
E. Achieving gender equity in education
95. Gender inequity continues to be a major concern. Discrimination against girls and women results in lower social and economic status compared with that of males, fewer opportunities to express opinions and participate in decision-making, lower levels of educational attainment, poor health and nutritional status, and sexual exploitation and violence.
96. While the 2001 total illiteracy rate is still high and much higher among wo men (71 per cent) than among men (40 per cent), progress has been made since 1997 when the illiteracy rates were 74 per cent and 45 per cent for women and men, respectively. The gender gap in primary education is gradually closing at the lower primary education level: in 2001, 78 girls were enrolled per 100 boys, up from 71 in 1998. In secondary education, the gap is wider and did not show any improvement in the last few years, with the ratio of girls to boys at 67 per cent. The discrepancies are higher in the northern and central provinces. The repetition rate (as a proxy indicator of girls’ performance in school) is always higher for girls than for boys (53 per cent of girls against 46 per cent of boys in secondary schools, for example).
97. If current trends continue, the goal of achieving gender parity in education is likely to be met at the first level of primary education in 2005 or soon after, while the goals for upper primary education and secondary education are likely to be met in later years.
F. Reducing under-five mortality by two thirds by 2015
98. Mozambique was able to bring about a decline in the under-five mortality rate (U5MR) during the 1990s, from 277 in 1994 to 246 in 1997. Nevertheless, Mozambique is unlikely to meet the 2015 target of reducing under-five mortality by two thirds. While efforts are under way to increase access to health services, the growing HIV/AIDS pandemic is likely to slow down, or even reverse, positive trends in child survival. Without HIV/AIDS, the country would be on track to reach the more modest goal set in PARPA to reduce U5MR to 190 per 1,000 live births by 2005.
99. Despite improvements in equity in the health sector, urban/rural and provincial disparities are still evident. The under-five mortality rate is 39 per cent higher in rural than in urban areas, standing at 270 compared with 166. The differences between provinces are equally striking.
G. Reducing maternal mortality by three quarters by 2015
100. A survey published in 1995 estimated maternal mortality for the country to be 1,062 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Efforts have been undertaken by the Ministry of Health to reverse this situation. The proportion of births assisted by skilled attendants increased from 31 per cent in 1990 to 43.7 per cent in 1997. Nevertheless, significant regional and urban/rural differentials remain. In the Demographic and Health Survey carried out in 1997, the estimates among the different provinces ranged from 23.5 per cent in Zambezia province to 86.5 per cent in the city of Maputo. The rural/urban differential ranged from 33.3 to 81.3 per cent. PARPA targets coverage of institutional deliveries to 50 per cent in the country. However, it is very unlikely that the target of reducing maternal mortality by three quarters between 1990 and 2015 will be reached, as serious constraints remain on the access to good -quality reproductive health services. Indeed, this situation is clearly demonstrated in the very low use of modern contraceptive methods.
H. Reversing malaria
101. The possibility of halving malaria mortality by 2015 may be seriously limited. The proportional rate of malaria mortality in paediatric inpatient wards was 32 per cent (617/1,954) in 1998, 42 per cent (764/1,734) in 1999 and 40 per cent (498/ 1,242) in 2000.
102. Malaria accounts for the highest incidence of disease in Mozambique. As a single disease, it is the leading cause of the 30-40 per cent morbidity and mortality while also contributing to anaemia and other secondary complications. Child ren under five years of age and pregnant women are the most vulnerable groups. In Mozambique, malaria causes much suffering and loss of life especially in rural areas and contributes to the loss of productivity and reduction in school attendance. Along with other illnesses such as AIDS, it seriously undermines economic development and poses a very serious challenge to reaching health sector development targets.
I. Reversing loss of environmental resources
103. Mozambique is rich in some natural resources (including wildlife, timber and minerals), some of which have exportable value. Still, practices such as uncontrolled logging, hunting and overfishing already put pressure on these resources. Inadequate use of water resources, as well as erratic urban development, mainly linked to increased economic activity, may equally threaten the existing resource base.
104. Likewise, other unsustainable practices, such as slash -and-burn techniques, causing bush fires, deforestation and, eventually, land degradation and loss of biodiversity, may contribute to desertification. This cycle is in turn linked to rural poverty. Therefore, policies geared towards agricultural development must simultaneously address environmental concerns.
105. The overall policy trends show outstanding progress in developing the legal framework for regulating natural resource use and complying with important international conventions relevant for the environment, including the formulation and approval of the Environment Framework Law, the Land Law, the Law on Forestry and Wild Life, and the Law on Water Resources. Mozambique also has a National Environmental Management Programme (NEMP), approved in 1995. However, existing sector policies and programmes have so far not achieved the formulation of a broad and multisectoral sustainable development policy, which could provide a coordinating umbrella.
J. The United Nations response to identified key development needs
106. Based on those emergency and development needs identified and national millennium development goal targets, the 2002-2006 harmonized programming cycle of the United Nations collaboratively and cooperatively focuses on key development areas to achieve the objectives described below.
107. Promote the fulfilment of the right to personal security:
(a) HIV/AIDS: to support the implementation of the national multisectoral strategy of the National AIDS Council to combat HIV/AIDS and security mechanisms for those affected by HIV/AIDS, especially orphans, and research for impact mitigat ion;
(b) Disaster management:
(i) Natural: to increase effective national and community mechanisms for prevention of, preparedness for, and response to natural disasters;
(ii) Man-made: to increase the security of persons and property through mine action initiatives including information campaigns in targeted vulnerable communities.
108. Promote the fulfilment of the right to knowledge and long and healthy lives:
(a) Education: to ensure equal access of girls and boys to basic education;
(b) Health and well-being: to support a multisectoral response to provide prevention, care and protection responding to the special needs of women, children, adolescents and youth:
(i) Health services: to improve standards for sustainable health services;
(ii) Nutrition: to improve standards for a sustainable nutritional status;
(iii) Water and sanitation: to increase household access to safe water and adequate sanitation.
109. Promote the fulfilment of the right to sustainable livelihoods:
(a) Rural development and agric ulture: to reduce the vulnerability of the rural poor and decrease the disparity between urban and rural household assets by supporting sustainable family household production and access: Food security: to improve household food and security through supporting the development of policies and programmes that improve access to, and availability and utilization of food;
(b) Employment and private sector development: to improve labour rights enforcement and arbitration, and promote employment and economic growth in the private sector through credit, regulatory and quality control, and training institutions that support microenterprises, and small and medium-sized enterprises.
110. To promote the fulfilment of the right to full participation, protection and equa lity: Democracy and decentralization:
(i) Public institutions and processes: to build capacity to sustain democratic processes and practices in public agencies and institutions including elections, parliament, judiciary, and public administration at natio nal and local levels;
(ii) Social communication: to enhance the quality and quantity of mass media and communication services to ensure effective household and community participation and social mobilization.
111. The United Nations system resource mobilization target for the period 2002-2006 is $350 million, over 25 per cent of which is for the fight against HIV/AIDS and 45 per cent for education (especially access for girls) and health. With guiding principles with respect to targeting the most vulnerable, United Nations assistance in 2002-2006 aims to strengthen national capacity to reduce vulnerability and increase sustainable systems to reduce poverty.
K. Refugees in Mozambique
112. It is important to note that Mozambique has developed from a country producing refugees during the armed conflict into a country of asylum for African refugees, mainly from the Great Lakes region. In 2001 5,522 asylum-seekers sought protection in Mozambique. The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is providing support to the Government of Mozambique with respect to fulfilling its international obligations under the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees6 and the Organization of African Unity Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa of 1969,7 relating to the status of refugees, by providing technical expertise during the status determination process and by providing the Government of Mozambique with funds to meet the needs in basic care and maintenance of refugees in camps in Mozambique and to develop the Nampula refugee camp.
113. The Government of Mozambique and the United Nations system spent much of 2000 and 2001 preparing for and responding to severe cyclones and flooding and their impacts on vulnerable populations. Assisting in coordination, resource mobilization, and delivery of goods and services, the Government, the United Nations and partners were able to intervene quickly and effectively to reduce the loss of life. While future improvements are needed, lessons learned have allowed for partners to be better coordinated and for preparation and response initiatives to be mainstreamed into United Nations and partner planning. The Governmentmanaged reconstruction programme has demonstrated clear positive results; and while rehabilitation and resettlement efforts are still under way, national and regional assessments and monitoring continue.
114. United Nations assistance in Mozambique has been augmented through the completion of the 2000 Common Country Assessment (CCA) which analysed root causes of poverty in Mozambique and resulted in the 2002-2006 United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF), responding to PARPA and under the global umbrella of the United Nations Millennium Declaration. United Nations agency programmes are derived from the UNDAF; and United Nations assistance, together with that of its partners, aims to help achieve national millennium development goals to reduce poverty and decrease the levels of vulnerability of Mozambican citizens .
** E/2002/100 and Add.1.
+ The submission of the report was delayed to allow the clearing departments - Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery/United Nations Development Programme, Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the Unit ed Nations Secretariat, Department of Political Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat - to approve the document.
1 United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, 2001 and addendum (New York, Oxford University Press, 2001).
2 Ibid., Human Development Indicators, table 1 (human development index).
3 See Official Records of the Security Council, Fortyseventh Year, Supplement for October, November and December 1992 , document S/24635, annex.
4 See General Assembly resolution 55/2.
5 General Assembly resolution S-26/2, annex.
6 United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 189, No. 2545.
7 See Human Rights: A Compilation of International Instruments, vol. II, Regional Instruments (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.97.XIV.1), sect. C, No. 37.