ACT appeal Mozambique: Disaster preparedness - AFMZ-21

Originally published


Appeal Target: US$ 430,003
Geneva, 30 January 2002

Dear Colleagues,

The Lutheran World federation -- Mozambique program proposes to enhance its emergency preparedness and that of other ACT members in the country and the region. The focus will be on strengthening communities in preparedness and disaster mitigation. The programs will also train the local and regional ACT members on the use of the Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum standards in order to improve the emergency response programs in the Southern African region.

In working with the communities, the focus will be in three provinces where LWF-Mozambique have development programs. These are Gaza, Sofala, and Tete provinces. The activities under the appeal are intended to focus on improving preparedness response for smaller but on-going risk prone communities supported by previous relief and recovery appeals in 2000 and 2001. At the same time aim to support and ensure continuity for essential projects in areas where LWS-Mozambique were involved during the 2000 floods.

Project Completion Date: 31 December 2002

Summary of Appeal Targets, Pledges/Contributions Received and Balance Requested

Total Appeal Target(s):
Less: Pledges/Contr. Recd.:
Balance Requested from ACT Network:

Please kindly send your contributions to the following ACT bank account:

Account Number -- 240-432629.60A (USD)
Account Name: ACT - Action by Churches Together
PO Box 2600
1211 Geneva 2

Please also inform the Finance Officer Jessie Kgoroeadira (direct tel. +4122/791.60.38, e-mail address of all pledges/contributions and transfers, including funds sent direct to the implementers, now that the Pledge Form is no longer attached to the Appeal.

We would appreciate being informed of any intent to submit applications for EU, USAID and/or other back donor funding and the subsequent results. We thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.

ACT Web Site address:

Ms. Geneviève Jacques
WCC/Cluster on Relations
Thor-Arne Prois
Director, ACT
Rev. Rudolf Hinz
LWF/World Service


  • Lutheran World Federation, Mozambique



Following the disastrous flooding in 2000 and 2001, this ACT appeal builds upon AFMZ11 Disaster Preparedness Appeal and intends to develop further capacity for the Lutheran World Federation in Mozambique and its partners in responding more effectively to any future disasters and mitigate future disasters.

The ACT/LWS-Mozambique programme sees its disaster preparedness as a key element in its development programme -- especially in a disaster-prone country like Mozambique. Mozambique’s position along the Channel of Mozambique, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean make it vulnerable to cyclones. In addition because of its length, Mozambique drains water from five neighbouring countries through its territory. The purpose of this appeal is to be prepared for these disasters, be they flooding/cyclones or drought (predicated for 2002) or epidemics and mitigate their impact on vulnerable village communities where LWS-M (and other ACT partners) carry out their work, and respond to and effectively cope with their consequences.

While AFMZ11 focused on improving emergency response capacity, as seen in relation to the flooding in Zambezia valley in 2001, the ACT/LWS-M Mozambique programme is at present trying to take a broader approach to disaster preparedness, an approach which can be summarised as follows:

  • Disaster preparedness will be treated as a cross cutting issue in the long-term LWS-M development program and seen as one important goal for the LWS-M programme. Disaster preparedness will not be treated as a specialised programme or a specific stage coming before disaster response. Disaster Preparedness will be treated as a continuous and an integrated process involving both relief and development.
  • This Disaster Preparedness appeal will be a result of a wide range of activities and resources rather than a distinct sectorial activity in itself. It will require the contributions of many different areas -- ranging from training to logistics supports, and from awareness-raising to institutional development.
  • The methodology used for the implementation of this Disaster Preparedness appeal will ensure the involvement of different key actors within the target districts (district administrations as well as local representatives) and different actors within the LWS-M programme at provincial as well as central office level.

The activities under this appeal are intended to focus on improving preparedness response for smaller but on-going risks to communities supported by previous relief and recovery appeals in 2000/1 rather than preparing only for large and infrequent events.

At the same time the aim is to support and ensure continuity for essential projects in areas where LWS-M were involved during the 2000 flood and in this way live up to the commitment to the people and communities with which LWS-M has been working.

Locations for the Proposed Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness

ACT/LWS-M Mitigation and Disaster Preparedness efforts would take place in 3 Provinces, Gaza province in the centrally located Guija, Chokwe and Mabalane districts; Sofala Province covering Chibabava and Buzi districts in the southern part of the province; and in the Tete Province in Angónia, Macanga, and Maravia districts towards the north of the province. LWS-M has on-going development projects in all the mentioned districts.

Current Situation

Preliminary results from Government crop and food assessment at the beginning of September 2001 indicate there will be some areas of food insecurity in the country which would need some kind of relief intervention by the end of the year, this according to a recent WFP emergency report. The government disaster authority the INGC has indicated several districts in the Maputo, Inhambane, Manica, Tete, Sofala, and Gaza provinces (the three latter provinces being LWS programme areas). WFP is already active in most of these areas because they are known as "chronically food insecure."

In Gaza province, very low levels of rainfall and the failure of normal coping mechanisms have exacerbated the poor harvest.

In Sofala province the Buzi area is still suffering from the consequences of the 2000 and 2001 floods. The Chibabava area is generally dry. The predicted less than normal rainfall in 2002 will hit this district and its food security particularly hard.

In Tete province foreseen poor rainfall combined with poor communication and distribution/availability of basic food reserves creates the foundation for food insecurity.

The Khongolote area was planned as an expansion area for the Matola urban area. The 2000 flood created an immediate need for a resettlement area and Khongolote was chosen. The township now has a population of approximately 390,000 inhabitants with 9,305 residential plots demarcated. The development of necessary infrastructure falls far behind inclusive major access roads to the area.

In the case of a need to resettle more people, - be it due to flood, epidemics or general upgrading in existing crowded townships, expansion to the Khongolote area continue to be the only option.

Description of Possible Disaster Scenarios

At the time of presentation of this Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness appeal the situation in the three geographically distant areas focused by LWS-M, as well as the Khongolote township, shows different possible scenarios.

Some areas are generally dry and prone for periods of food insecurity as well as health problems caused by insufficient food and water. In contrast other areas are still re-establishing themselves after the large 2000/2001 floods. Even local and short-term flooding during the coming rainy season will have serious consequences and result in loss of agricultural crops as well as destruction of temporarily repaired local access roads and other infrastructure.

In particular the district centres, but also other minor urban agglomerations, are prone to epidemics such as cholera due to poor sanitary conditions, poor drainage and treatment of garbage and lack of clean drinking water.

In general, there is a lack of knowledge and awareness on how to -- with simple means and local resources -- minimise and mitigate some of the foreseen problems.

Current Security Situation

The current security situation is calm. Political violence is not considered a threat in Mozambique and there are no internal or external military threats.


Overall Goal & Objectives

With the present appeal LWS-M wish to concretise the visions presented in the LWF strategic Plan 2002-2006, with particular reference to Strategic Priority 1:
"Reduce the disaster and poverty related vulnerability of displaced and marginalised people through effective and responsive emergency relief, rehabilitation and disaster preparedness integrated in sustainable development".

Immediate Goal & Objectives

  • Strengthen community-based preparedness and mitigation, by approaching and involving the local communities in a participatory manner through the ongoing long-term LWS-M projects and activities.
  • Increase the efficiency, effectiveness and impact of disaster response, by introducing training on Humanitarian Charter and Minimum standards in Disaster Response, SPHERE.
  • Develop strategies to maintain an effective and sustainable disaster preparedness and response system, by involving and using locally based institutions and community resources.
  • Develop activities for addressing everyday risks of communities between major disasters which are also useful for responding to crisis situation, by relevant training and awareness raising activities as well as participatory approaches for identification of everyday risks and their mitigation at local level.
  • Make available when needed, disaster relief based on stocks pre-positioned in the LWS-M warehouses in Mozambique.

Co-ordination with other Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness Programmes in Mozambique

It is, in addition, the objective that the LWS-M disaster mitigation and preparedness initiatives are co-ordinated with the activities of other national or international organisations with the objective of obtaining the maximum effectiveness and efficiency for the benefit of the local communities.


The beneficiaries of the present appeal can be divided in four separate, but at times overlapping, groups:

Beneficiaries of immediate relief and food aid;

LWS-M’s aim is to keep prepared stocks to assist 10,000 beneficiaries (2,000 families) anywhere in Mozambique. They are most likely to be within the geographical areas mentioned in Maputo, Sofala, Gaza or Tete provinces, where LWS-M has staff and contingency stocks in place (See annex attached). 60% of the beneficiaries will be female and 80% rural subsistence farmers (these percentages reflect population statistics).

Beneficiaries for training;

Training activities will target local community members, local authorities as well as LWS-M and other ACT member’s staff at provincial as well as central level. It is estimated that approximately 250 people will be involved in different training activities.

It is further intended to conduct regional training on Sphere, NCA equipment and others, for LWS staff as well as other staff from relevant ACT partners from Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Angola, Zambia, Malawi and South Africa.

Beneficiaries of local awareness activities and involvement in activities;

Through participatory methods the involvement of local residents and community groups will be ensured within the target districts. It is estimated that in this manner some 500-700 people will increase their knowledge of disaster mitigation and preparedness at local level.

Criteria In Beneficiary Selection

The beneficiaries for the present appeal will form part of one of the groups mentioned above. Identification of beneficiaries of disaster relief, participants in training activities or other local activities, would be in consultation and co-operation with community leaders, other ACT members and the Government at appropriate level.


Objective - Strengthen community-based preparedness and mitigation.

Activities linked to the implementation of the objectives include:

  • Procure relevant maps showing the geographical areas not prone to flooding and facilitate their reproduction in adequate numbers.
  • Through the LWS-M provincial staff make the information available in the above-mentioned maps known by the local authorities and relevant community leaders and groups.
  • Assist local communities in establishing communication networks and establish agreed responsibilities in the case of emergencies. Who does what?, Who communicates to whom?
  • Facilitate training of Traditional Birth Attendants -- TBAs, inclusive provision of health kits and first aid kits in areas remote from government health services.

Increase the efficiency, effectiveness and impact of disaster response.
  • Carry out training activities on the use of Sphere Humanitarian Charter and Minimum standards in Disaster response, including World Service and ACT partners in the region. "The ACT external evaluation mission found little evidence of SPHERE standards consciously being observed" LWF-M intends to conduct many training sessions both nationally and regionally trying to filter the knowledge of SPHERE down to more operational levels.
  • A general re-orientation course (understanding of the concepts such as early warning mechanisms).
  • Send two ACT/LWS-M national staff to the Disaster Management course in Africa University, Zimbabwe. The two staff members will later conduct intern training at LWS-M project level.
  • Training in vulnerability - and capacity assessments and collection of baseline information.
  • Training on the use of NCA water equipment, currently in the Maputo warehouse as part of disaster preparedness stocks. Continue building up training for ACT/LWF staff and ACT Mozambique partners in the use of NCA-financed water purification units and water distribution units. This will allow these units and equipment to be used in future disaster without a delay imposed by the need to fly in extra personnel from Norway. ACT/NCA water technicians would be invited to Maputo to carry out a series of training.

    Further training of Mozambique staff trained in use of ACT/NCA equipment - probably more than a week. The training would cover not only operations but also maintenance. An NCA technician will be invited to lead the training. Regional training will be held for LWF staff from Zimbabwe, Angola, SA, Swaziland and Zambia on the equipment. This would expand the disaster response capacity of the ACT/LWF and ACT/NCA. The equipment on hand can be used in either drought or flood conditions, so ACT/LWF and ACT/NCA will be covered whatever happens.

  • Regular "staff development/exposure" opportunities in neighbouring countries at modest costs.
  • Conduct a two-day workshop on lessons learnt from the 2000 ACT External Evaluation together with all ACT Mozambique partners, in co-ordination with the ACT Appeals officer in ACT Geneva.

Develop strategies to maintain an effective and sustainable disaster preparedness and response system
  • Develop a basic document with information on Emergency Response Kits, their contents and use; Disaster preparedness stock available in individual warehouses; Standard documentation for reception and distribution of Emergency goods; transport means to be made available in an emergency situation, ACT manuals, assessment forms, communication equipment, and distribute these to each LWS-M office.
  • In relation with LWS-M staff seminars include at least ½ day for refresher course in disaster preparedness and mitigation.
  • Ensure an effective maintenance of the internal LWS-M HF radio communication system.
  • As part of the on-going, long term development programme in the target areas determine the need for translation of information material in relevant local languages.
  • Establish collaboration agreements with local Mozambican radio stations on broadcasting of programmes on disaster mitigation and preparedness, especially in those areas where LWS-M has development programs, in local languages.
  • Facilitate regular contact and co-ordination with and among ACT members in Mozambique -- Presbyterian Church of Mozambique-IPM, Christian Council of Mozambique-CCM, (Ecumenical Committee for Social Development-CEDES) and Lutheran World Federation-LWF.
  • Facilitate regular contact and co-ordination with and among other international and national organizations operating in the individual target areas as well as with related agencies, supporting this disaster preparedness appeal.
  • Participate actively and promote co-operation and co-ordination amongst regional partners, and thereby serve as a practical instrument of regional co-operation, with ACT/LWS Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Malawi, and South Africa. This through annual planning /review meetings involving Representatives from ACT/LWS regional offices and other ACT partners.
  • Facilitate Southern Africa Regional Network Meeting in Swaziland, February 2002 with the objective of strengthening both LWS and ACT in Southern Africa.

Develop activities for addressing everyday risks of communities between major disasters
  • Through participatory methods assist the local communities in identifying and formulating everyday risks and possible hazards -- minor to major -- and agreeing on most appropriate local mitigation and actions to be taken.
  • Facilitate relevant training and capacity building within target groups based on locally agreed action plans.
  • Support relevant infrastructure works, which are appropriate components within local mitigation and disaster preparedness action plans.

Make available, when needed, with the outmost efficiency disaster relief
  • Maintain up-to-date data of existing disaster relief stock within the individual LWS-M Warehouses, inclusive Rub Halls, boats and outboard engines and water supply equipment.
  • Keep and maintain up-dated roster of local staff -- within the programme as well as candidates who could be re-hired.
  • Keep Government structures and other relevant institutions informed of the LWS-M disaster relief capacity.
  • Stock pilling of in-kind donations of material aid within appropriate warehouses.
  • Ensure, in consultation with ACT/NCA, procurement of necessary additional water supply equipment.
  • Ensure a functioning communication and radio system.
  • Ensure an adequate maintenance standard of the ACT/LWS-M transport fleet.
  • Replenish stocks for "small" donations and replace "expired" stock.
  • In case of major disaster new appeals will replenish stocks like happened in 2001 from the Zambezi Appeal AFMZ12.



LWF Mozambique Representative is responsible for policy making and the overall co-ordination and management of the country programme. Currently the Representative is assisted by four Senior staff namely; Programme Co-ordinator, Finance Manager, Office Administrator, and Logistics officer. These form the Senior Management group which addresses programme concerns and agree on future plans. They meet on a weekly basis and go over action plans related to the programme. In the projects the Community Development Officers (CDOs) and Community Development Assistants (CDAs) based in the communities, are instrumental in the implementation of community-based activities.


The Finance Manager is responsible for overall financial management of project accounts and disburses funds to projects against cash flow plans. The emergency team leader is in charge of the project implementation. Payments are made at Maputo level in accordance with agreed budgets, cash flows and the LWF Field Manual. Procurements are centralised in Maputo. The Finance Manager will carry out periodic internal audits. Financial reports are received from the implementing teams periodically and consolidated into a monthly financial report. These are submitted to the Secretary for Finance and Administration at LWF in Geneva. The Finance Manager prepares specific donor reports with copies to LWF Geneva. Donor funds are paid into an LWF/DWS - Mozambique bank account in Geneva and drawn down by the field office as required.


Project Co-ordinators will monitor the weather and potential emergency situations in their projects, as well as participate in identifying every day risks and monitor the development. The PCs are further responsible for sending out alerts when needed. The Emergency Programme Co-ordinator and Programme Co-ordinator will decide when emergency stocks will be used and from then regular reports will be sent to the ACT Co-ordinating office.

Emergency Liaison officer is a national position, and is the focal person who will ensure that the contingency plans and the LWS-M Emergency Manual is kept updated and circulated to all concerned staff. He/she will be responsible to maintaining continuity in the activities as well as ensuring incorporation of these in the LWS-M long-term development programme.

Warehouse Manager/Logistic Assistance officer is a national position, and is the focal person in relation to warehouse management and distribution of disaster preparedness stocks.


Implementation of this appeal would be from January 2002 to the end of December 2002.


As disaster preparedness requires a complex range of activities and resources, it cannot be carried out by just one agency or authority as lessons from the flooding in 2000. A large part of preparedness for large scale disasters will continue to be the role of the Mozambique Disaster agency INGC. Aspects requiring long-term sustainability, such as search and rescue, and those needing costly investment, such as sophisticated early warning systems, will be left to the authorities where the ACT/LWF recourses are limited. ACT/LWF-M will be try to obtain information from ACT/SACC in South Africa who are in touch with the Government’s regional early warning department.

LWS-M together with regional ACT partners is sharing a resource database on equipment and human resources to be mobilized at short notice.

ACT/LWF-M has a close relationship at both provincial and district level and co-ordinates with government departments of agriculture, rural water supply and sanitation, education, roads, health, and the Disaster department INGC.

In Tete, Sofala, and Gaza and especially during the emergencies, ACT/LWF was an active member of the Provincial INGC co-ordinating structures. It has been found that the most effective co-ordination takes place at the District and Provincial levels, and particularly the latter where LWF has long standing relations based on their development projects. LWF-M has also been working in co-operation with a number of international and national NGO’s. The latter include the Ecumenical Committee for Social Development (CEDES), the Presbyterian Church of Mozambique (IPM), the Christian Council of Mozambique (CCM). CEDES has seconded staff to ACT/LWF-M. World Vision has also been a partner in Sofala and Tete, Concern in Sofala and UNICEF in a joint malaria project in Gaza.

The LWF Mozambique Program Co-ordinator has been trained in SPHERE (Standard Project for Humanitarian Response) as a trainer, and will utilise his capacity to train ACT members in Mozambique and the region of Southern Africa, LWF Staff in Mozambique and the region, SPHERE pilot agencies in Mozambique.

Monitoring and evaluation

Monitoring and evolution of the activities will be managed in part through the normal LWF-M system in place for Development projects. This system uses regular reporting on quarterly basis to monitor and track activities. ACT/LWF-M has hired a Emergency Liaison Officer (national) to handle and be the focal person for the emergency and mitigation activities in this appeal.

ACT is a worldwide network of churches and related agencies meeting human need through coordinated emergency response.

The ACT Coordinating Office is based with the World Council of Churches (WCC) and the Lutheran World Federation (LWF) in Switzerland.

(in pdf* format)

* Get Adobe Acrobat Viewer (free)