Dzuds are extreme winters characterised by freezing temperatures, heavy snow and ground so frozen that animals cannot reach pasture. These conditions are commonly preceded by a dry summer with equally scant grazing. Livestock struggles to build up the stores of fat they need for winter. The poorest herders cannot afford extra fodder to ensure the survival of their livestock and livelihood. In early 2020, forecasts of a dzud triggered the release of funding to protect vulnerable herders.