The countries of Costa Rica, Mexico and Panama have responded to multiple and concurrent displacement and migration situations over recent years, including increased arrivals from Venezuela. By November 2020, there were an estimated 251,900 Venezuelan refugees and migrants in the sub-region. The sub-region will continue to be considered an important destination for refugees and migrants from Venezuela throughout 2021.
Across the sub-region and favourable protection environments generally allow for access to asylum, work permits, national health and social protection programmes, and primary education for children. A substantial proportion of Venezuelan refugees and migrants are still in need of regularization of their status; those in irregular situations are unable to access basic services and face heightened protection risks. There has been a significant deterioration of living conditions of Venezuelan refugee and migrant households due to the ongoing economic impact of COVID-19, as well as the lack of valid documentation resulting from continued delays in asylum and migratory regularization processes. Limited economic activity and partial closure of public life has likewise negatively affected integration prospects. The increasingly vulnerable profiles of refugees and migrants from Venezuela arriving in the sub-region have put additional pressure on strained national resources.