A. Analysis of the situation
The food crisis and hunger projection in the Sahel have become increasingly alarming over the past decade in all the countries. Like other countries in the region, Mauritania is currently facing a situation of food and nutritional insecurity caused by poor spatial and temporal distribution and an increased rainfall deficit in most areas of the country during the 2021 winter season. The country, mainly arid, is experiencing highest level of drought compared to its Sahel neighbours. This situation is considered the worst since 2012. It is aggravated by the increase in the price of basic foodstuff. All resulting from the sharp rise in acquisition costs on world markets and the disruption of supplies due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the crisis in Ukraine. There is an important increase in the price of basket food in a population with a decreasing purchasing power.
In terms of geographic areas, 34 of the 48 departments analysed are classified as being in crisis (IPC Phase 3) and the rest of the areas are in the pressure phase. Moreover, 1,400,000 people in a situation of moderate food insecurity (stressed) can easily fall into severe food insecurity during and after the lean season if rapid accompanying measures are not taken to improve their situation. The most affected regions areas are located in the regions in the south (Adrar,
Assaba, Brakna, Tagant, Gorgol, Guidimakha, Hodh Chargui, Hodh Ech Chargi and Hodh El Gharbi) facing drought increase, transhumance, inflation, etc.
According to the results of the Inter-Agency food security analysis conducted in March 2022, some 878,921 people (20% of the population)1 will be food insecure during the lean period (June-September 2022). There are 136,254 malnourished children, including 103,514 (6%) in moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and 32,740 (1.9%) in Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM), compared with 116,000 children in 2020. Malnutrition rates are approaching or exceeding the emergency thresholds set by WHO. More recently, the Hunger Hotspots from FAO-WFP early warnings and FEWSNET report published 20 June 2022 forecasted a worsening of the crisis based of the low rainfall over agropastoral regions in the south. The acceleration of the observed transhumance, inflation, poverty and refugees flying from various locations make expect a lean season worse than last year in most of the south regions. With the current situation, 0,99 million people are projected to be on Phase 3 and more in the post lean season by December 2022.