Annual Participants Based Survey (PaBS FY2020), September 2020

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“The Human Capital, Accountability and Resilience program for the Promotion of Nutrition Security, Livelihoods and Accountability” program (Harande), a 45-million USD USAID funded program, is implemented in Mopti Region (Mali) for September 2015 to September 2020.

As required by USAID, to inform all the annual monitoring survey indicators and establish the performance achievement, Harande program has to conduct an annual monitoring survey as part as FY20 MEAL activities.

Harande program, implemented the annual monitoring survey through the M&E Unit and Program team supported by the CARE USA Regional M&E Advisor. The methodology is based on the Participants Based Survey (PaBS survey) guidelines expressed in Feed the Future PABS guideline1 . It has been conducted using the latest BHA participants-based survey methodology guidance. All fourteen (14) annual survey indicators have been computed using weighting procedures. Except for, gross margin, value of incremental and yield indicators that used more complex formulas, standard errors and confidence intervals have been established for the remaining indicators. FY20 Data collection has been made during the period of July 15 - 29, 2020 and methodology comply with the PaBS FtF guideline as recommended by BHA.

The PaBS have been implemented in the following four (4) communes: Dourou, Dandoli, Douentza and Koubewel Koundia, and a total of 48 villages have been reached through these communes for data collection.

A total of 1,733 participants have been sampled for this PaBS. Within them 11% refused the survey and 72% were female. That bring the total participant who responded to the survey in all the frames without double counting to 1,529. Participants who overlap between frames during the survey were counted once. It appears that 28% of participants were youth. Out of a total of 1,529 interviewed respondents 1,265 come from households and 18% of them were household heads. The average size of households was 9 members (the number varies from a minimum of 2 to a maximum of 35 household members).

FY20 actual for gross margins for value chain commodities (Beans, Shallot and Chickens) was positive and better than for two previous years. It was obvious, that the quantity and specifically the value of sales have been improved compared to previous years for the respective commodities. This trend has been observed during the previous survey and directly affected the overall value of gross margin. Furthermore, there are some contextual factors (climate, conflict, adequate use of technologies, quality of soils, rainfall, ..., etc.) influencing the production and also the use of the product. Although quantity of sales for shallot reached 58% of the total production, bean and poultry remained under 40%. It seems that for all the value chain commodities, approximatively the half (50%) of the total production is used for household consumption or any other purposes. It’s worth mentioning that around 75% of the total production destined for sale and 25% maximum for household consumption/other uses may be a better scenario to encourage value chain participants to put their product on market and improve their profit.

Regarding the use of technologies, 85% of farmers and others targeted participants have applied improved technologies and management practices promoted by Harande during the reporting year. It comes out that for most of the technologies and management practices the number of producers and other reached in FY20 increased with regard of the targets and the previous year achievements. The number of hectares under improved technologies estimates confirmed that farmers had knowledge in using technologies and management practices. Previous years trends observed are maintained over years Even though some of this knowledge have been gained before, then reinforced through the Harande program. Also, data show an average hectare of land under improved technologies or management practices used by farmers 1.09 hectare. This confirm means measured in previous years that is 1 hectare per small farmer. The FFBS highly contributed to this success and FY20 achievement show all farmers interest with regards of promoted technologies and practices. This may bring evidence of a good acceptance and adequacy of the FFBS strategy within this intervention area. It results also that some of the technologies and practices declared to be used by the farmers not promoted by Harande comes from other partner’s interventions and are finally complementary.

According to youth indicators, 79.0% of participants have qualified jobs through the non-farm activities to support their livelihoods, against 75% for FY19, 74.3% for FY18 and 54.3% for FY17. Thus, the program contributes to increase the indicator level by 24% since FY17. Approximatively 92% of youth who responded to the survey declare that their livelihoods are based mainly on non-farm activities. It results from this finding that approximatively 7% of targeted youth failed to build their livelihoods on non-farm activities. In addition, result show that 86% of 7,453 direct Harande participants reported to see improvement in the access and the quality of at least one public service available in their area during the reporting period. It’s obvious, that Harande contributions to those changes between FY17 and FY20 is attributable to non-farm livelihoods activities like vocational and entrepreneurship support. These success evidences bellow reinforce the finding expressed, stating successful youth interventions strategy implementation by Harande.

Regarding the financial capacities, among the 3 569 participants of the financial services frame after weighting, 24% declare to be able to generate their IGA and enterprise balance sheet. Also results show that only 42% of this frame participant’s benefits of training on how to generate IGA, MSME balance sheet. The indicator estimate is closely linked to the training efforts accomplished. Considering the low literacy rates in the population it is good to see that half of participant who benefit of training on balance sheet establishment where able to proceed.

Regarding the services improvement, quality and satisfaction, 86% of 7,453 direct Harande participants reported to see improvement in the access and the quality of at least one public service available in their area during the reporting period. 86% of all program direct participants are satisfied with food, health/nutrition and economic public service during the reporting period, compared to the 91.2%, 84.5% and 84% observed respectively for FY19, FY18 and FY17. These indicators levels are lower than the previous year one but in line with trends observed for this indicator. It still good, record a significant change and inform on the quality and the effectiveness of the provided services.

For conflict indicator, data analysis revels that 48% of people who responded to the conflict survey declared to be involved in conflict resolution in their community or surrounding communities during the past 12 months. They have been involved in several type of conflict resolutions in that time frame. The nature of conflict they participate are detailed: Conflicts between families: 61%; Neighborhood conflicts: 55%; Intra-household conflicts: 32%; Conflicts between farmers and herders: 20%; Gender based Violence: 6%; Armed groups violence: 2%; Conflicts in two or more communities: 0%. It is very good to see that conflict between communities is not mentioned in the occurred conflicts. It also important to note that conflict between farmers and herders ere mentioned only by 20%, this is great improvement in that area where this type of conflict used to have very high prevalence few years ago. It is really great to mention that conflict awareness has been raised among program participant in this area. Figures show better willingness of ability to negotiate a win-win peaceful solution by promoting dialogue between the parties in conflict. Traditional and religious institutions seem also to be more preferred to formal governments ones.

In other hands, among 5,665 participants reached with agricultural/livelihoods activities 74% have adopted post-harvest handling practices as part of their on farm activities during the FY20. 70.3% of the reached participants are female. It came out that at least 6 farmers out of 10 who have a good understanding of post-harvest management and they are focusing and using technologies and practices that helps to store properly and keep the quality of the production like using appropriate bags for storage, insect-temperature and humidity control. This may bring substantial contribution to their revenues as losses are minimized as much as possible.

Regarding the ANC visits it is great to note that behavior changed as 98,8% of women did at least one visit during their pregnancy. Among respondents 51% have reached the required 4 ANC expected and 80% did at least 3 ANC. This is a great achievement in Harande intervention area knowing that ANC figures are much more low at the beginning of the program. It is great to note these important awareness changes as “husband refusal” or low quality of ANC services” are not mentioned by the respondents as limiting factors, they used to be at the beginning of Harande. Care group strategy implemented by Harande had a great contribution in these positive changes production.

On nutrition aspect, 78% declared that themselves and/or their children have consumed the enriched flour promoted by Harande. This represent 8 out of 10 women and show how spread was the implementation and the level of acceptance of the enriched floor activity.

For the resilience integration analysis trough, the Harande implementation, regarding coping actions implemented, it results that 91% of participants who responded, declared that actions and practices have been implemented by the project to address the main recurrent and climate related shocks and stresses identified in their context. Within 95% of participants declared that they observed their own or household vulnerability reduction after actions and practices implementation and 79% of them estimate that they recover for or preserve the initial situation that they have before shock/crises. 20% responded that they did not recover or preserve their initial situation and 1% don’t really know or didn’t wanted to respond to that specific. It is obvious that height participants among 10 are arguing that mitigation actions and practices implemented are indeed effective and help to reduce their vulnerability to shocks and crises and even maintain or recover for their situation before the crises. It is really comforting to note that a majority of 66% of program perceived resilience integration within the program implementation against 34% of participant who did not perceived. This show a good resilience integration according to program participants based on the effectiveness of the action and responses provided by the Harande program in their context.

For gender integration appreciation it is great to see that approximatively 85% estimate that the integration level is good, within them 58% appreciate to “Transformative gender integration level” and 27% to “responsive gender integration level”. Regarding gender integration by Harande according to program participant appreciations, it is obvious that significant changes have been observed. It is also obvious here to note that participants are more informed about gender implementation as all people responded to the survey.

Based on all findings described above, it is obvious that Harande made significant achievements in expected outcome over its implementation period despite the complex insecurity context and the COVID 19 outbreak limitations in FY20. The best possible learning items, best practices and lesson learned should be extracted for knowledge sharing among DFSA and adaptive management insights per each technical sector.