A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
On 3 March 2017, Tropical storm Enawo formed in the southern Indian Ocean, by 7 March the wind surge had reached speeds of up to 300km/hr. Enawo was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane and Tropical Cyclone Enawo on 7 March 217 at 0830 UTC (1130 local time) between Antalaha and Sambava on the north-east coast. The cyclone affected Sava and Analanjirofo regions crossing Madagascar from North to South over 2 days causing flooding across the country including the capital Antananarivo. According to Bureau National de Gestion des Risques et des Catastrophes (BNGRC), more than 400,000 people were affected in eight regions, with the North-East being mostly impacted. The roads were impacted by the debris and heavy rains. Within a week of the disaster, it was estimated that 80’000 people were displaced, about half in the North-East regions alone. The Government of Madagascar declared a National situation of emergency on 14 March 2017.
Almost 10 months later, tropical cyclone Ava made landfall on 5 January 2018 in Tamatave city, heading southwest at a speed of 15km/hr for more than 24 hours between the districts of Toamasina and Nosy Varika, through Toamasina II Brickaville, Vatomandry and Mahanoro before moving back to the sea. The system resulted in heavy rains in the North West and South East and impacted at least four districts that were already hit by tropical storm Enawo prior.