A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
On 3 March 2017, Tropical storm Enawo formed in the southern Indian Ocean, by 7 March the wind surge had reached speeds of up to 300km/hr. near the center. Enawo was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane and Tropical Cyclone Enawo on 7 March 217 at 0830 UTC (1130 local time) between Antalaha and Sambava on the north-east coast. The cyclone affected Sava and Analanjirofo regions crossing Madagascar from North to South over 2 days causing flooding across the country including the capital Antananarivo. According to Bureau National de Gestion des Risques et des Catastrophes (BNGRC), more than 400,000 people have been affected in eight regions, with the North-East being mostly impacted. The roads have been impacted by the debris and heavy rains. Within a week of the disaster, it was Emergency Plan of Action Operation Update 4 Madagascar: Cyclone ENAWO and Tropical Storm AVA estimated that 80’000 people were displaced, about half in the North-East regions alone. The Government of Madagascar declared a National situation of emergency on 14 March 2017.
Almost 10 months later, tropical cyclone Ava made landfall on 5 January 2018 in Tamatave city, heading southwest at a speed of 15km/hr for more than 24 hours between the districts of Toamasina and Nosy Varika I, through Toamasina II Brickaville, Vatomandry and Mahanoro before moving back to the sea. The system resulted in heavy rains in the North West and South East, and impacted at least 4 districts that were already hit by tropical storm Enawo prior.
Summary of current response
Overview of Host National Society
The Madagascar Red Cross Society (MRCS) mobilised 24 National Disaster Response Team (NDRT) members, 120 Branch Disaster Response Team (BDRT) members and 895 volunteers as the cyclone approached Madagascar. MRCS deployed the Disaster Response Teams and 726 of the 895 mobilised volunteers into communities to carry out community sensitisation activities before the cyclone made landfall. In addition to community sensitisation activities the staff and volunteers also conducted rapid needs assessments, first aid and psychosocial support (PSS) activities after the cyclone hit Madagascar. The First Aid and PSS assistance was provided to displaced people who were being sheltered in evacuation centres in Antananarivo.
Deployed NDRTs who conducted assessments in Marontsetra and Antalaha had WASH and Shelter capacities. MRCS with support from PIROI distributed Shelter kits, NFIs and WASH items which were pre-positioned as part of disaster preparedness. The NS’s staff from the head office as well as 22 branch coordinators were mobilised to support the response.
The NS together with the Disaster Response Agency (BNGRC) convened Coordination Meetings to plan the response with other agencies involved in the response. MRCS is the lead and chairs the Shelter Cluster following its activation.
The NS also participated in an aerial assessment with the government on 13 March 2017.
Following the alert issued for Tropical Storm Ava, the National Society deployed 193 volunteers and its National Disaster Response Team (NDRT) to 14 districts in the 6 most affected regions.
Overview of Red Cross Red Crescent Movement in country
The IFRC has an in-country Operations Manager supporting MRCS implement the Emergency Appeal. On 12 March 2017, IFRC launched an Emergency Appeal with a DREF allocation of 150,000 Swiss francs at the request of MRCS. The IFRC also deployed a FACT Team Leader, a shelter coordinator and IM specialist to support the development and implementation of the operation in the ensuing days.
The NS is also supported by partner national societies who are in-country including Norwegian Red Cross, Danish Red Cross, German Red Cross and Italian Red Cross. The Belgian Red C recently set up a programme in Madagascar. The ICRC Regional Office for the Indian Ocean is in Madagascar. A RCRC movement DRR consortium with Danish, German and Norwegian RC DRR mobilised funds from their ECHO supported DRR project to support the initial response (ECHO “Crisis Modifier”). PIROI deployed a Disaster specialist to support the MRCS on 9 March and also deployed relief items for the response in addition to its pre-positioned stock in Madagascar.
When Tropical Storm Ava formed, PIROI and the IFRC East Africa and Indian Ocean(EAIO) Cluster and Regional Office in Nairobi continued to support MRCS. When the storm made landfall on 5 January 2018, IFRC and PIROI held two strategic calls to update the situation and determine level of support to MRCS, update on situation and inform necessary response actions.
Overview of non-RCRC actors in country
The Government of Madagascar (GoM) coordinates disaster response through its Bureau National de Gestion des Risques et des Catastrophes (BNGRC). The BNGRC constantly monitors and meets with the organizations active on regular basis in the country, UN agencies and local and international NGOs.
The scale of the Enawo impact lead the UN to activate the cluster system (all). It should be noted that a National cluster system exists in Madagascar, aligned with the international cluster system, to coordinate the humanitarian activities at all time. MRCS has the lead on the shelter cluster on a National level.
Actors involved in the response include: UN: OCHA, UNICEF, PAM, WHO, UNFPA, UNDP, IOM, WFP; NGO: CARE, HI, ADRA, CRS, Medair; Civil society, business partners: Telma on NFI distributions, businesses from Sava/Analangiforo on infrastructures (roads) clean-up and rehabilitation.