A. SITUATION ANALYSIS
Description of the disaster
On 3 March 2017, Tropical storm Enawo formed in the southern Indian Ocean. As of 7 March, the wind surge had reached speeds up to 300km/h near the center. Enawo was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane. Tropical cyclone Enawo made landfall on Tuesday 7 March at 8:30 UTC (11:30 local time) between Antalaha and Sambava on the northeast coast. Enawo subsequently moved southwards across the highlands. After battering Sava and Analanjirofo regions, the cyclone crossed Madagascar from North to South for two days, lashing heavy rains on all the country including the capital Antananarivo, home to more than two million people, resulting in flooding that displaced thousands of people in several regions. According to Bureau National de Gestion des Risques et des Catastrophes (BNGRC), more than 400,000 people have been affected in eight regions, with the North-East being mostly impacted.
The three districts of Antalaha, Andapa (Sava) and Maroantsetra (Analanjirofo) in the North-East compose the “vanilla triangle”, an economically important region in Madagascar. Access to the region is however difficult even in normal times, with no national paved roads between the central capital state and Analanjirofo or Sava regions. Access by sea is the preferred option, and there is an airport in Sambava (Sava). The roads have been impacted by the debris and heavy rains. Within a week of the disaster, it was estimated that 80’000 people were displaced, about half in the NorthEast regions alone. The Government of Madagascar declared a National situation of emergency on 14 March 2017.
Summary of current response
Overview of Host National Society
The MRCS mobilised 24 NDRT members, 120 Branch Disaster Response Team (BDRT) members and 895 volunteers as the cyclone approached Madagascar. MRCS deployed the Disaster Response Teams and 726 of the 895 mobilized volunteers into communities to carry out community sensitisation activities before the cyclone made landfall. In addition to community sensitisation activities, the staff and volunteers also conducted rapid needs assessments, first aid and psychosocial support (PSS) activities after the cyclone hit Madagascar. The First Aid and PSS assistance was provided to displaced people who were being sheltered in evacuation centres in Antananarivo.
NDRTs with health and WASH profile were deployed to address typical health and WASH in needs assessments conducted in Marontsetra and Antalaha. MRCS with support from PIROI distributed Shelter kits, NFIs and WASH items which were pre-positioned as part of disaster preparedness. The national society’s staff from the head office as well as 22 branch coordinators were mobilised to support the response.
The national society together with the Disaster Response Agency (BNGRC) convened coordination meetings to plan the response with other agencies involved in the response. MRCS is the lead and chairs the Shelter Cluster following its activation. The national society also participated in an aerial assessment with the government on the 13th of March 2017. MRCS continues to monitor the situation and producing situational reports.
Overview of Red Cross Red Crescent Movement in country
The IFRC has an in-country Operations Manager supporting MRCS implement the Emergency Appeal. The IFRC also deployed a FACT Team Leader on the 13th of March to work with MRCS in developing a response plan. On 12 March 2017, IFRC launched an Emergency Appeal with a DREF allocation of 150,000 Swiss francs at the request of MRCS. To support the implementation of the operation a shelter coordinator and IM specialist were deployed by the IFRC working with the National Society between 18 and 21 March.
The NS is also supported by PNSs who are in-country i.e. Danish Red Cross, German Red Cross, Italian Red Cross and Norwegian Red Cross. The Belgian RC recently set up a programme in Madagascar. The ICRC Regional Office for the Indian Ocean is in Madagascar. A RCRC Movement DRR consortium with Danish, German and Norwegian RC DRR mobilised funds from their ECHO supported DRR project to support the initial response (ECHO “Crisis Modifier”). Plateforme d’Intervention Régionale de l’Océan Indien (PIROI) deployed a Disaster specialist to support the MRCS on the 9th of March. PIROI also deployed relief items for the response in addition to the pre-positioned stock in Madagascar.
Overview of non-RCRC actors in country
The Government of Madagascar (GoM) coordinates disaster response through its Bureau National de Gestion des Risques et des Catastrophes (BNGRC). The BNGRC constantly monitors and meets with the organizations active on regular basis in the country, UN agencies and local and international NGOs.
The scale of the Enawo impact lead the UN to activate the cluster system (all). It should be noted that a National cluster system exists in Madagascar, aligned with the international Cluster system, to coordinate the humanitarian activities at all time. MRCS leads the Shelter cluster on a National level.
Actors involved in the response include: UN: OCHA, UNICEF, PAM, WHO, UNFPA, UNDP, IOM, WFP; NGO: CARE, HI, ADRA, CRS, MEDAIR, Civil society, business partners: Telma on NFI distributions, businesses from Sava/Analangiforo on infrastructures (roads) clean-up and rehabilitation.