A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
On 3 March 2017, Tropical storm Enawo formed in the Southern Indian Ocean. As of 7 March, the wind surge had reached speeds up to 300km/h near the center. Enawo was upgraded to a Category 4 hurricane. Tropical cyclone Enawo made landfall on Tuesday 7 March at 8.30 UTC (11.30 local time) between Antalaha and Sambava on the northeast coast. Enawo subsequently moved southwards across the highlands. After battering Sava and Analanjirofo regions, the cyclone crossed Madagascar from North to South for two days, lashing heavy rains on all the country including the capital Antananarivo, home to more than two million people, resulting in flooding that displaced thousands of people in several regions. According to Bureau National de Gestion des Risques et des Catastrophes (BNGRC), more than 400,000 people have been affected in 8 regions, with the North-East being mostly impacted.
The 3 districts of Antalaha, Andapa (Sava) and Maroantsetra (Analanjirofo) in the North-East compose the “vanilla triangle”, an economically important region in Madagascar. Access to the region is however difficult even in normal times, with no national paved roads between the Central capital state and Analanjirofo or Sava regions. Access by sea is the preferred option, and there is an airport in Sambava (Sava). The roads have been impacted by the debris and heavy rains. Within a week of the disaster, it was estimated that 80’000 people were displaced, about half in the NorthEast regions alone. The Government of Madagascar declared a National emergency on 14 March 2017.