1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
In 2009, Madagascar has suffered the effects of multiple crises, including drought, cyclones and a period of political instability marked by violence, which recently led to the ousting of the President. The political crisis over the past three months has worsened the already poor situation of large segments of the Malagasy population through disruptions in basic social services, a climate of fear and uncertainty, and caused delays or cessation of services to a number of aid and development projects across the country. These disruptions have exacerbated the effects of the cyclones and drought, diverting attention, and delaying assessments and response. The political instability severely affected industry and other livelihood sources, including the tourism sector, causing income losses for many households. With the majority of the population living on under $1 a day, increased food prices and limited incomes have curtailed the ability of most households to access foodstuffs, water, sanitation and other social services – services which are usually provided on a cost-recovery basis.
This combination of crises has increased the numbers of persons needing humanitarian assistance, to the extent that an estimated 2.5 million people living mainly in Madagascar's main cities of Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Antsirabe, Toliary, Toamasina, Mahajanga, Manacara and Fianarantsoa, and an additional 880,000 living in the drought-affected south, now need humanitarian assistance. (See table on page 18.) This figure includes a series of beneficiary target groups, many of which overlap, and which demonstrate the complexity of the crisis and its interlinkages. With food insecurity in Madagascar's major cities at 35%, it includes more than 410,000 Malagasy who are now in need of food assistance, including 150,000 in the drought-stricken South and 260,000 in four of the major cities where the political unrest has been the worst. Food insecurity in the south is expected to worsen as the lack of rains is expected to delay the next harvest by three months and to reduce it to by estimated 30 - 40%, leaving a significant food gap.
It also includes up to 891,000 people, 700,000 of whom are in the main cities, who need urgent water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions, especially 100,000 children under the age of five. Urgent WASH interventions are needed in the context of breakdowns or disruptions to basic social services and the lack of rain which has significantly reduced the amount of water available for human consumption and hygiene, leading to conditions in which the risk of water-borne disease outbreaks is extremely high. An integrated intervention encompassing WASH, health, nutrition and food aid programmes for about 150,000 people in the south is urgently needed to avert a potential nutritional crisis through June, when the harvest is expected.
It also includes 310,500 children under five, including 277,500 in the cities, urgently in need of nutritional assistance, as well as 145,000 pregnant or lactating women. In the health sector, vital drugs and medical material will be pre-positioned, a key measure should a much-feared disruption of the procurement and distribution chain of drugs and consumable take place as a result of the violence. Actions to avoid disruption of the cold chain, including provision of fuel and spare parts, will ensure continuation of vaccinations for 742,900 children, and other interventions will ensure reproductive health services for the same number of women. The health sector will also support and possibly expand the no-cost access to basic healthcare provision for the most vulnerable persons (currently some 200,000 people) for the next three months, depending on the evolution of the situation. Over 70,000 children will also directly benefit from a range of school programmes, including material assistance, as well as from psycho-social assistance to deal with the impacts of the crisis, especially as concerns their exposure to politically motivated violence.
While particular focus has been placed on the delivery of emergency aid, there is also a need for timecritical early recovery elements that support livelihood recovery, and which can immediately support the affected population to restore their lives. More importantly, community peace-building takes on added significance from the communities whose unresolved grievances caused the civil unrest. In this regard, attention must also be given to governance and to a coordinated approach to delivery and access to basic and protection services.
As of the publication of this appeal, the response to the victims of cyclones Eric and Fanele, which hit the north-eastern and south-western coasts in January 2009, was adequate despite delays in assistance due to the political violence, the exception being the rehabilitation of schools. Hence, this appeal also seeks to support the emergency rehabilitation of a limited number of schools, without which some 3,000 children will miss an entire school year. (No information is available yet on the effects of Cyclone Jade, which struck Madagascar as a category 1 storm on 6 April 2009.)
The current delays and/or the suspension of government programmes, combined with the reduced capacity of the administration due to the sudden change in leadership and the suspension of some international assistance, has severely curtailed the current Government's capacity to meet the basic needs of the population. To prevent the deterioration of the humanitarian situation, the Madagascar Humanitarian Country Team is seeking US$ 35,732,550 to save lives, bolster social safety nets and, should the political situation allow, support time-critical recovery.1 This appeal will be revised as the situation evolves and further assessment and surveillance data becomes available.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Table I. Summary of Requirements – By Cluster
Table II. Summary of Requirements – By Organisation
2. CONTEXT AND HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES
2.1 CONTEXT AND RESPONSE TO DATE
2.2 HUMANITARIAN CONSEQUENCES AND NEEDS ANALYSIS
3. RESPONSE PLANS
3.1 FOOD SECURITY AND LIVELIHOODS
3.3 WATER AND SANITATION
3.7 COORDINATION AND COMMON SERVICES
4. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
ANNEX I. LISTS OF PROJECTS
PROJECTS GROUPED BY SECTOR/CLUSTER
PROJECTS GROUPED BY ORGANISATION
SUMMARY OF REQUIREMENTS BY IASC STANDARD SECTOR
ANNEX II. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Please note that appeals are revised regularly. The latest version of this document is available on http://www.humanitarianappeal.net.
Updated project funding requirements are shown continually on www.reliefweb.int/fts.
Note: The full text of this appeal is available on-line in Adobe Acrobat (pdf) format and may also be downloaded in zipped MS Word format.
For additional copies, please contact:
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Palais des Nations
8-14 Avenue de la Paix
CH - 1211 Geneva, Switzerland
Tel.: (41 22) 917.1972
Fax: (41 22) 917.0368
- UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
- To learn more about OCHA's activities, please visit https://www.unocha.org/.