OVERVIEW OF LIBYA
Since mid-2014 Libya has been caught in a political crisis which has had severe repercussions on the country’s population and the hosted migrant populations. As the Government of National Accord works towards unifying the country, the humanitarian crisis remains grave. Many continue to be displaced, deprived of basic services and confronted by a continued devaluation of the Libyan Dinar.
The civil conflict has caused extensive damage to infrastructure and livelihoods, forcing many Libyans to be displaced on multiple occasions. The breakdown of law and order has left many civilians victim to indiscriminate attacks, loss of access to livelihood activities, housing, land and/or property. In addition many have witnessed a loss of personal documents, assets and financial resources.
In the current context further internal displacements are likely due to the constant threats of violence and lack of protection. Under the current instability, resources and basic services have become overstretched, creating conditions that may exacerbate social cohesion. In addition, while acting as a host country Libya faces challenges as it remains a destination for regional migrants who seek opportunities. It is currently estimated that between 700,000 to 1 million migrants reside in Libya. Although there are migrants who are established in the country there are also migrants of concern who are reported to be living along main migration routes in areas that have traditionally suffered from unequal central budget distribution. This marginalisation has been exacerbated by the absence of a central authority. The accumulating pressures create additional burdens for host communities and local authorities, leaving people increasingly vulnerable to human rights violations.
Although the situation remains complex with continued clashes being reported, diplomatic missions and embassy representatives are returning to Libya with truce pacts, such as the Touareg and Tabu peace agreement on the border between Libya and Algeria, being signed.
The 2016 Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) acknowledges that the scale of the crisis and humanitarian needs demands a more coherent picture of internal displacement and migration patterns in Libya and in relation to the Mediterranean. Cofunded by the European Unioniv and DFID, IOM established the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) programme in October 2015, designed and developed to track and monitor the human mobility dynamics of the crisis. DTM focuses on identifying and locating areas hosting IDPs, returnees, and migrants, and providing estimated population figures.
DTM round three has established full coverage of all accessible areas of Libya, capturing the comprehensive baseline of the county’s IDP and migrant populations. Since launching DTM, IOM has identified 417,123 IDPs, 149,160 returnees and 234,669 migrantsV . During the third round,
DTM expanded its geographic coverage and enhanced the quality of data by conducting field visits and assessments in locations, including Benghazi, hosting IDPs and migrants.
During round 3, DTM assessed all accessible areas of Libya, covering 100 areas out of 104 (Harawa, Sirte, Al Jaghbub and Misratah were all reported as inaccessible). IDPs were identified across 95 areas, returnees were identified in 13 areas and migrants across 29 areas. With increased geographic coverage, estimates of mobility-affected population have increased to 417,123 for IDPs and 234,669 for migrants and stand at 149,160 for returnees.