Since the uprising that overthrew the Government of Muammar al Qadhafi in 2011,
Libya has been marked by political instability and the spread of armed militia. Following the 2011 revolution, the country experienced its first power divide in mid-2014, when the Islamist-dominated General National Congress (GNC) refused to step down for the newly elected House of Representatives (HoR). A second fragmentation occurred, when following more than a year of peace talks, a UN-backed unity government, the Government of National Accord (GNA) was announced in early 2016. Both the GNC, based in Tripoli, and the HoR, based in Tobruk, spoke out against the GNA and refused to step down (see page 3)
Over 200 civilians have been killed by fighting since the start of 2016. Active conflict, around Benghazi, Derna, Misratah and Sirte, continues to cause civilian casualties, displacement and damage to infrastructure. Apart from these areas, the conflict appears to have ceased over the past months, partly due to signing of reconciliation agreements between different armed groups. However, the lack of law and order continues to result in countrywide protection concerns, with armed groups engaged in arbitrary detention, torture, and disappearances. Criminal networks profit from the power vacuum and an estimated 27,000 migrants have been smuggled from Libya to Italy since the start of 2016 (see page 6).
The whole population continues to be affected by the liquidity crisis, reduction in income sources, the breakdown of the welfare state, and damage to critical infrastructure. Priority humanitarian needs include access to healthcare, WASH and livelihoods. IDPs, migrants and traditionally marginalised groups have been identified as those most in need of support (see page 9 to 13). The latest available information on the number of people in need, from September 2015, indicates that 2.4 million people require humanitarian assistance. This amounts to almost 40% of Libya’s estimated population of 6.3 million. Areas hosting a large number of IDPs, such as Benghazi which accounts for about 25% of the total IDP population, are struggling to cope with the increased demand in water and health infrastructure.