AMOUNT: EUR 17 000 000
The present Humanitarian Implementation Plan (HIP) was prepared on the basis of financing decision ECHO/WWD/BUD/2019/01000 (Worldwide Decision) and the related General Guidelines for Operational Priorities on Humanitarian Aid (Operational Priorities). The purpose of the HIP and its annex is to serve as a communication tool for DG ECHO1 's partners and to assist in the preparation of their proposals. The provisions of the Worldwide Decision and the General Conditions of the Agreement with the European Commission shall take precedence over the provisions in this document.
0. MAJOR CHANGES SINCE PREVIOUS VERSION OF THE HIP
May 2019 - Modification N°1 There are increasing humanitarian needs in Libya since the armed conflict started south of Tripoli on April 4th. As of May 27 th over 82 000 people have been displaced and the number is likely to increase as no ceasefire is expected in the short term. In view of the current unmet humanitarian needs, an additional allocation of EUR 2 million is considered necessary to help meet the basic needs of vulnerable conflict-affected population, notably in the health and protection sectors.
This modification will bring the total amount of the HIP North Africa to EUR 17 million.
The HIP 2019 for North Africa focuses mainly on two political and protracted crises: the over four-decade-long Sahrawi refugee crisis in Algeria and the volatile Libyan crisis.
This HIP may also respond to sudden or slow-onset new emergencies in Algeria, Libya,
Morocco or Tunisia, if important unmet humanitarian needs emerge.
1.1 Algeria (Sahrawi refugees): Since 1975, Morocco and the Polisario Front have fought for the control over Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony. The Polisario Front claims to represent the aspirations of the Western Sahara inhabitants for independence, while Morocco's claim dates back to its own independence in 1956 and is based on an offer for large autonomy. In 1975, Algeria allowed the establishment of refugee camps in Southwest Algeria. Direct hostilities between Morocco and the Polisario Front ended in 1991 with the implementation of a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations (UN). The UN Security Council Resolution 690 (1991) established the UN Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO), with the mandate to organise a referendum to allow the people of Western Sahara to choose between independence and integration with Morocco. MINURSO continues to advocate for a just and lasting solution. Gathered in five camps (“Ausserd”, “Boujdour”, “Dakhla”, “Laayoune”, and “Smara”) around Tindouf in the Algerian Sahara desert, the Sahrawi refugees are largely dependent on external humanitarian assistance. Given the extremely harsh environment, their prospect for self-reliance is limited as opportunities for income-generating activities are scarce.
Algeria ranks 83on the Human Development Index (HDI). Its overall INFORM Vulnerability Index3 is 4.3/10 (medium), Hazard and Exposure 5.4/10, Lack of Coping Capacity 4.6/10. The country has an INFORM Crisis Index of 0/3, resulting from a Conflict Intensity score of 0/3, Uprooted People of 0/3 and People affected by Natural Disaster of 0/3. Algeria has a total population of approximately 42.2 million .
DG ECHO considers the Sahrawi crisis as a Forgotten Crisis5 . A stalemate in the resolution of the conflict and political sensitivities continue to thwart any short-term perspectives for return, reintegration or resettlement, and deter the interest of development actors.
Since 2017, DG ECHO has been actively engaged in rendering this forgotten humanitarian crisis more visible. This has been done through advocacy towards other donors; advocacy towards other EU instruments better suited to cover some specific, medium to longer-term activities (in particular in the livelihood sector, support to social cohesion, and prevention of youth radicalization). Furthermore, multi-year strategies have been built up with relevant partners in order to seek greater efficiency and sustainability, and to reduce costs, appropriate for the protracted nature of the crisis (e.g. in food assistance, water and Education in Emergencies sectors).
DG ECHO's Integrated Analysis Framework (IAF) for 2018-2019 identified moderate humanitarian needs in the Sahrawi camps. According to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Tindouf (Algeria) refugee population living in the camps is 173 600. The vulnerability of the population affected by the crisis is reportedly high. According to UNHCR, since 2006, 90 000 refugees are allegedly highly vulnerable. A vulnerability study is to be completed under UNHCR leadership by December 2018 to update this figure.
According to the latest Food Security Assessment for the Sahrawi crisis6 ), 94% of Sahrawi refugees depend on humanitarian food assistance, while 17% are completely dependent without any alternative source of income. One third of the refugee population (30%) is reportedly food insecure. Access to drinking water is estimated at 12.6 litres/person/day (below SPHERE7 minimum standards (20 litres/person/day). The provision of basic healthcare, and epidemic preparedness and response through the timely and adequate supply of essential drugs is challenging, considering the limited fund available, logistic constraints, and high prevalence of non-communicable diseases among the refugees. The education system has a limited capacity (poor infrastructure, underqualified teachers, lack of basic education supplies) as reflected in the high rates of repetition and drop out, in particular among girls.
Algeria is a country prone to multiple hazards such as earthquakes, flash floods and droughts. The Algerian Civil Protection (ACP) has a strong response capacity and nationwide expertise. ACP is certified by the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG), and has signed an Administrative Agreement on Civil Protection with DG ECHO.