• Libya is an upper middle-income country ranked 110 out of 189 on HDI (or “rich country” but with absence of the indicators of a rich country”.
• Political and economic instability (in a country of daily oil revenues up to 150 million USD).
• Total estimated population is 6,800,000, of which around 80 % is urban. 584,000 refugees/migrants are estimated to be present in the country.
• Ongoing conflict (present threat of large-scale hostilities despite recently signed peace agreement). Presence of foreign armed groups. In first half of 2020, Libya recorded the second-highest number of attacks on health care in the world (second only to Afghanistan).
• UN recognizes only one government, GNA in Tripoli; with interim, LNA, in Benghazi.
• Libya is categorized as a Grade 2 emergency country with 1.3 million people (host population, IDPs, migrants, refugees) in need of humanitarian assistance
• Trafficking of drugs, weapons and migrants, uncontrolled borders. Organized crime (multiple armed groups/militia in control of urban and rural areas) and corruption.
• Impact of tribes on any governance related issues. Political divide not only between two main parties to the conflict (GNA and LNA) but within the same GNA and LNA areas.
• Disconnect between the so called “central” (both in Tripoli and Benghazi) authorities and the municipalities. Southern Libya may be classified as “an orphaned” region: forgotten, neglected with the dominance of tribal issues and being a competitive “battleground” for influence between GNA and LNA
• Initially, response capacities have been created around only Tripoli and Benghazi while neglecting vast geographical areas.
• COVID-19 pandemic clearly illustrated all deficiencies of the quality of overall governance.
• Donors perceptions and landscape: Libya has its own financial resources and should meet its own needs and in time move to be a donor itself. Libya does not have an acute emergency anymore and that there should be shift of focus from short term project-based funding to a Humanitarian, Development, Peace building nexus (HDPNx) approach. Continued perception of “migrant’s crisis”.
• The Berlin Peacebuilding process moved forward with the ceasefire agreement signed in Geneva on 23 October with a commitment for national elections on 24 December 2021.