Some families in Lebanon have been spending up to 50% of their monthly income on bread, a staple food, and have been skipping meals and eating expired and less nutritious food to cope. The Lebanese pound has lost 90% of its value since 2019, resulting in unsustainable governmental subsidies for bread. Bread prices have increased more than fourfold since last year. Bread shortages are the end result of reduced wheat supply caused by factors including the socioeconomic crisis and the Beirut port explosion. Lebanon’s import capacity has decreased by 60%, and damage caused by the port explosion reduced grain storage capacity by 100,000 metric tons. The Russian invasion of Ukraine has also impacted wheat supply and bread prices in Lebanon. Long queues for bread at bakeries are increasing tensions between host communities and Syrian refugees, who are at risk of increased violence.
The northwestern town of Tawergha has been severely impacted by the conflict in Libya since 2011, when the majority of its 40,000 strong population were displaced. By May 2021, around 7,000 people had returned, where they reside with relatives, in empty classrooms, or partially repaired houses, as homes were damaged or destroyed in the conflict. Returnees have extensive shelter needs and also need access to education, healthcare, and clean water following the significant infrastructure damage and lack of repair. Medicines and preventive measures are needed to combat cutaneous leishmaniasis (a vector-borne, parasitic disease), which is endemic. Around 17,000 people displaced from Tawergha have been living mainly in Benghazi and Tripoli, in camp-like settings, with reported needs of shelter, livelihoods, and sanitation services as at April 2022. Many displaced people are unable to return to Tawergha because of lack of livelihood opportunities in the town.