UNICEF Kenya Humanitarian Situation Report, 1 April to 31 May 2018
• Over the last weeks, heavy rains have led to significant flooding across 40 out of 47 counties in Kenya, resulting in infrastructure damage and displacing 291,171 people.
• A total of 28,935 severely malnourished children and 64,503 moderately malnourished children were admitted for treatment from 1 January to 30 April 2018.
• Over 123,400 people in flood-affected counties benefitted from temporary access to safe water and 24,400 people from the distribution of NFIs.
• 12,000 people (2,400 children under five) affected by floods-related cholera outbreaks benefited from the provision of UNICEF life-saving health commodities
• The polio immunization campaign in Nairobi County from 9th to 12th May 2018, reached 768,003 children under five years
• A total of 4,551 cholera cases with 74 deaths (CFR 1.6%) have been reported across 18 counties in 2018, of which eight counties are currently reporting active outbreaks (Garissa, Tharaka Nithi, Turkana, West Pokot, Isiolo, Kiambu and Elgeyo Marakwet).
• In 2018, UNICEF requires US$ 33.7 million for its Humanitarian Action for Children (HAC) Appeal. The 2018 HAC has a funding gap of 79%.
SITUATION IN NUMBERS
People are food insecure
(2017 Short Rains Assessment, March 2018)
People are in urgent need of safe drinking water (Ministry of Water and Irrigation, June 2017)
Children are food insecure
(2017 Short Rains Assessment, March 2018)
Children under 5 in need of SAM treatment (Nutrition SMART Surveys, February 2018, total caseload)
Situation Overview & Humanitarian Needs
Since the onset of the peak period of the ”Long Rains” season in early April, torrential rains have led to significant flooding across 40 out of 47 counties in Kenya (Tana River, Taita Taveta, Turkana, Kakamega, Samburu, Garissa, Marsabit, Wajir, Isiolo, Mandera, Narok, Kisumu, Tharaka Nithi, Nairobi, Nakuru, Muranga, Makueni, Machakos, Kwale, Kitui, Kilifi, Kajiado, Kakamega, Embu, Busia, Elgeyo Markwet, Kirinyaga, Nyandarua, Homa Bay, West Pokot, Nandi, Nyeri, Lamu, Baringo, Migori, Meru, Kericho, Laikipia, Mombasa and Siaya counties), leading to displacement, loss of lives, loss of livelihoods and damaged infrastructure for provision of basic social services. The most-affected counties are Garissa (including Dadaab Refugee Camps), Tana River, Wajir, Turkana (including Kakuma refugee camps and Kalobeyei settlement), Mandera, Kilifi, Homabay, Siaya, Kisumu, Busia, Taita Taveta, Baringo, Nakuru, Kitui, Nandi, Makueni, Narok, Marsabit, Kajiado and Isiolo. According to the latest Kenya Red Cross updates, an estimated 291,171 people have been displaced, with the number expected to rise as heavy rains continue. Of these, approximately 146,170 are children (42% girls). Displaced households have suffered damaged/destroyed houses, lost household items, livestock swept away, damaged crops, destroyed livelihoods, psycho-social stress, and lack access to safe water, adequate food, clothing, schooling, markets and health services. Kenya Red Cross has also reported 97 injuries and 183 floods-related deaths.
Humanitarian access is reduced as major roads have been cut off by the rains, jeopardizing the delivery of emergency relief to affected population in the most hard-to-reach areas. Further assessment is still being hampered by lack of access to large parts of counties in North Eastern due to rising levels of flood water in most hard to reach rural areas affected by floods. Access to the most vulnerable groups continues to be a challenge for implementing partners due to impassable roads. Critical humanitarian supply routes in nine counties (i.e. Turkana, Nakuru, Wajir, Isiolo, Mandera, Marsabit, Tana River, Kisumu and Garissa) have been cut off, affecting transportation of humanitarian supplies. The situation could further deteriorate in the coming weeks with heavy rains set to continue over the Lake Victoria Basin, the Highlands West of the Rift Valley, the Central and South Rift Valley, the Central Highlands (including Nairobi) and the coastal areas. Although end May marks the cessation of the “Long Rains” season, Western Kenya including parts of central Rift Valley (Nakuru and Nyahururu) and the Coastal counties are expected to continue receiving rainfall into June, with further flooding expected. In Kitale, Eldoret, Kakamega, Kericho, Kisii and Nandi Hills areas, near-average to above-average rainfall is expected to continue into June-July-August period.
There are increasing WASH concerns with flood-affected people facing acute challenges in accessing sanitation facilities and safe water as open water sources, which are the only water sources for most of the population, continue to be contaminated by overflowing pit latrines. Many community water supply facilities are submerged, destroyed or damaged, latrines are washed away and some communities are marooned by flood waters. WASH infrastructure such as boreholes and water pans are damaged in some areas. Four water systems in Garissa County have been washed away leaving 10,000 people, including several schools and health facilities, without access to safe water. In Madogo of Tana River County, 1,032 latrines have collapsed, while another 800 are reported collapsed in Garissa town. Many households have also lost their water collection and storage facilities. Consequently, the most affected populations are increasingly resorting to the use of unsafe water sources and open defecation, significantly increasing the risk of new waves of cholera and other waterborne diseases outbreaks.
Health needs are increasing as the floods have compounded the ongoing cholera outbreaks leading to increased risk of further waterborne disease outbreaks including malaria, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever and dengue fever. According to the MoH disease outbreak sitrep of 28th May 2018, a total of 4,551 cholera cases with 74 deaths (CFR 1.6%) have been reported across 18 counties in 2018, of which eight counties are currently reporting active outbreaks (Garissa, Tharaka Nithi, Turkana, West Pokot, Isiolo, Kiambu and Elgeyo Marakwet).
The Ministry of Health has confirmed recently the presence of polio virus 2 in a sewage sample in Nairobi County. In response, a series of vaccination campaigns are planned in twelve counties up to July 2018, and access in some of the counties may be constrained due to the floods as well as insecurity. The same situation might impact the planned measles vaccination campaign in Wajir, Mandera and Garissa. Health centres in many areas have been flooded, however, health facilities infrastructure and commodities have not been extensively damaged by floods. UNICEF participated in the Kenya-Somalia Joint Cross-Border Health Coordination meeting between 4th to 8th April 2018 which noted that there is still low routine vaccination coverage in border sub counties and regions of Kenya and Somalia; weak community-based surveillance along the borders; poor synchronization of immunization activities among Countries/counties/Regions; incomplete updating of all cross-border points, villages, in-charges & facilities. Following the declaration of the outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the country is on high alert, with increased screening at all points of entry (air and land). The country is also on high alert for possible outbreak of Rift Valley Fever.
The schools re-opened after the April holidays when the rains intensified, thereby putting children at increased risk of harm and loss of life on the way to and from school. Data gathered from the SMS-based education surveys supported by UNICEF and conducted by Ministry of Education and the EiE working group indicates that over 739 schools have closed temporarily due to floods, disrupting learning for more than 100,000 children (44% girls) for one month, of which 448 schools report extensive infrastructure damage (especially classrooms and latrines). By Mid-May, 329 schools were hosting floods-displaced persons, affecting learning for about 46,000 children. There are also reports of separated children due to the floods. So far, a total of 534 children (234 girls) have been identified as separated. Displacement has also heightened protection risks for women and girls, particularly due to the absence of appropriate gender-sensitive WASH facilities. Girls and women are becoming increasingly vulnerable as access to water and access to safe latrines is reduced. There are also reports of children being increasingly engaged in child labour in the floods-related IDP camps. Of the approximately 146,170 children displaced by the floods, it is estimated that about 18,725 children (42 per cent girls) will require assistance to ensure their safety and psychosocial well-being.
According to FEWSNET, the key positive outcome of the enhanced rains is they have been largely beneficial, driving crop development in agricultural areas and increasing availability of milk in pastoral areas, resulting in expected improved food security outcomes between June to September period.
Since the beginning of the year, a cumulative total of 2,392 children (1,504 boys and 888 girls) have arrived in Kakuma refugee camp by 21 May 2018 as per the below table. Majority of the new arrivals (75%) are from South Sudan. The month of April recorded a higher number of child arrivals with 771 children (488 Boys and 283 Girls).