This revised Emergency Appeal seeks a total of CHF 2,010,476 to enable the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) to complement and support the country-level emergency operations related to food crises in Africa, mainly those Emergency Appeals focusing on drought and food insecurity. This regional appeal will ensure that the response to the food crises in Africa is effectively managed and coordinated beyond the country level, focusing on five key objectives:
Provide strategic oversight, enhanced leadership at the regional level and ensure support to operations.
Promote approaches which increase households and community resilience and build sustainable solutions to food insecurity.
Facilitate and encourage regional learning and peer-to-peer support.
Support the collection, consolidation and effective use of monitoring and data and information.
Strengthen and scale up community engagement and accountability approaches and activities.
This Emergency Appeal has been revised considering the adjusted geographic scope and evolving humanitarian needs in the Africa continent, as well as the human resource requirements of the regional coordination team. A funding gap of CHF 857,045 remains in this revised Emergency Appeal. The strategy has been informed by a continuous analysis of the emergency and operational conditions in the countries with food crises in Africa, and may be further adjusted based on the developments in 2018. Special recognition goes to the donors who have supported this appeal with cash pledges or have funded key positions to support the response efforts across the region, including Netherlands Red Cross, Australian Red Cross, Canadian Red Cross Society, Luxembourg Red Cross, Danish Red Cross, Swedish Red Cross, Red Cross of Monaco and the Ramboll Foundation.
A. Situation analysis
Description of the disaster
Over the past 15 years, nearly fifty per cent of the total aid that all 49 Sub-Saharan Red Cross and Red Crescent’s National Societies have requested was targeted at off-setting famine and food insecurity (nearly 500 million Swiss francs out of 1 billion Swiss francs). Since the end of 2016, the African continent is facing an unprecedented rise of people classified as food insecure. Millions of people in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and the Sahel are facing a severe food crisis and are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance. In many parts of the region, drought has further exacerbated vulnerabilities to disease outbreaks, large scale loss of livelihoods and displacement. Currently, there are 2.5 million people displaced by drought and conflict in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. At no other time in recent history has severe hunger and starvation loomed so large.
Food Crisis in Africa - General overview
Increasing food insecurity across Africa
In the recent years, there has been a rise in the frequency and severity of food crises in Africa. The causes to food insecurity are multiple and tend to overlap and lead to the development of complex and multi-sectoral crises. Conflicts, climatic stresses and shocks, economic shocks, spread of pests and disease, among others affect the different pillars of food security.
Globally, an estimated 76 million people across 45 countries, mainly in Africa, are likely to require emergency food assistance in 2018. This figure is 60 percent higher than it was in 2015 and only slightly lower than the 83 million people in need during 2017. While the food security situation has improved in parts of Southern Africa due to increased agricultural outputs in 2017, this situation overshadows the impact of fall army worm on crop production. If it is considered that worst case scenario was avoided in the countries that were potentially on the brink of famine in 2017, great uncertainty remains surrounding the trends for 2018 and the Global Report on Food Crises 2017 indicates that the number of food insecure people having reached IPC level 3 and above has never been that high.
Conlicts remain an important driver related to increased emergency food needs during 2018 including in the Central African Republic, Nigeria and the Lake Chad region, and South Sudan. The impact will be manifested by the disruption of food systems, malnutrition and adverse effect to the livelihoods of millions of people; limitation to trade and market functioning, displacement of households, and hinderance to the delivery of humanitarian assistance. In Africa limited humanitarian access is, more than in any other part of the world, a major barrier in reaching populations in need (see map). In 2017, these conditions have led several countries to be on the brink of famine.