As of September 2020, a total of 39,623, mostly South Sudanese refugees resided in Kalobeyei integrated settlement (Kalobeyei Village 1, Village 2 and Village 3). With continued conflict, instability and food insecurity causing new displacement in South Sudan, in addition to reduced humanitarian funding in Kalobeyei integrated settlement, there is a need to strengthen the available information on humanitarian needs and access to assistance and services in the villages. Such information is needed to support evidence-based planning of the immediate refugee response and further inform the development of longerterm response strategies, such as the government-led Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) annual plans and county-level development plans.
This situation overview presents findings of a multi-sector needs assessment conducted in October 2020 across the three villages of Kalobeyei by REACH Initiative in close collaboration with the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) and in support of humanitarian operational partners in Kalobeyei integrated settlement. It provides an analysis of needs across the following sectors; education, protection, food security, health and nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and livelihoods.
This assessment was conducted through household (HH) level interviews from 6 to 16 October 2020 in Kalobeyei integrated settlement. A total of 556 HHs from the three villages were interviewed (192 in Kalobeyei village 1, 178 in village 2 and 186 in village 3).
The sample was selected through probability random sampling at individual village level to fulfill a 95% confidence level and 7% margin of error and was calculated based on the HH population of each village. The confidence level is guaranteed for all questions that apply to the entire surveyed population of each village. Findings relating to a subset of the surveyed population may have a wider margin of error and a lower confidence level. The data was weighted during analysis to account for lack of proportionality for individual village samples. The data was aggregated at the overall Kalobeyei integrated settlement level to fulfill a 95% confidence level and 5% margin of error.
To ensure randomness in the sampling approach, random GPS points were generated using ESRI’s ArcMap in the residential areas. Enumerators accessed the random GPS points from their android phones using MAPinr, and they interviewed HHs that fell on particular points. In case there was no person to interview in the selected HH, or the respondent was unwilling to participate, enumerators targeted the nearest HH in a radius of 5 meters. If there was still no HH to interview, then they interviewed the HH that fell on the next point.
Findings indicate that Kalobeyei villages have severe needs across multiple sectors, with the most severe needs appearing to be in food security sector where almost two-thirds (60%) of HHs were found to have either a poor or borderline food consumption score (FCS)4. In addition to this, 62% of HHs were using either emergency, crisis of stress level livelihood-based coping strategies, which indicates that their FCS would be lower were they not engaging in these unsustainable coping strategies.
COVID-19 seems to be having an impact across sectors, including protection, livelihoods, and food security; A third of the HHs (33%) reported that they had borrowed some money from family, friends, traders, etc. at the time of data collection. Of these, 16% reported that they had borrowed the money due to COVID-19 related challenges. In addition, some HHs reported having a HH member who had lost their job as a result of COVID-19. Among HH members not registered as refugees or asylum seekers, the top reported reason for not registering was delays in registration due to COVID-19.
There are several key indicators that suggest that HHs are struggling to access WASH services: About half (55%) of HHs in Kalobeyei villages reported that they were unable to access enough water in the 30 days prior to data collection. Forty four percent of HHs (44%) reported that members of their HH experienced challenges while fetching water. Of these, 73% suggested that lack of enough water at their water point was the main challenge encountered. Sixty-six percent of HHs (66%) reportedly did not observe all the five critical hand washing occasions5, which exposes these HHs to a risk of disease transmission. A relatively high proportion of HHs in Kalobeyei village 3 (35%) reported that at least one member of their HH did not have access to or use a latrine.
Security is a concern for some refugees in Kalobeyei: 9% of HHs reported that the safety and security situation in the camps was either poor or very poor in the six months prior to data collection, while 90% reported that the safety and security situation was good or very good.
The access to health and nutrition was seemingly good: 94% of HHs reported being able to access a functioning health facility when they encountered a health issue and 61% of HHs reported being able to access nutrition services when needed.
Across the three villages, the proportion of female-headed HHs was higher than that of male-headed HHs. Eighty-one percent of HHs (81%) in Kalobeyei village 1, 70% in village 3 and 61% in village 2 were headed by women.
Across the three villages, a small yet considerable proportion of HHs with school-aged children reported having girls and/or boys in their household who were not attending school at the time of data collection (18% and 14%, respectively), mostly due to the perceived security concerns on the way to school for younger children in particular.